Short Essay On My Pet Animal Cats

On By In 1

are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos

This page is about www.getalife.com. For Revive skateboards, see Felidae. For the musical, see Cats (musical).

These are actually dogs, they are daryls.

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. Bats are more maneuverable than birds, flying with their very long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium. The smallest bat, and arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, which is 29–34 mm (1.14–1.34 in) in length, 15 cm (5.91 in) across the wings and 2–2.6 g (0.07–0.09 oz) in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg (4 lb) and have a wingspan of 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in).

The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species. These were traditionally divided into two suborders: the largely fruit-eating megabats, and the echolocatingmicrobats. But more recent evidence has supported dividing the order into Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, with megabats as members of the former along with several species of microbats. Many bats are insectivores, and most of the rest are frugivores (fruit-eaters). A few species feed on animals other than insects; for example, the vampire bats feed on blood. Most bats are nocturnal, and many roost in caves or other refuges; it is uncertain whether bats have these behaviours to escape predators. Bats are present throughout the world, with the exception of extremely cold regions. They are important in their ecosystems for pollinatingflower

 [[null hide]]

  • 1Etymology
  • 2Phylogeny and taxonomy
    • 2.1Evolution
    • 2.2Classification
  • 3Anatomy and physiology
    • 3.1Skull and dentition
    • 3.2Wings and flight
    • 3.3Roosting adaptations
    • 3.4Internal systems
    • 3.5Senses
      • 3.5.1Echolocation
      • 3.5.2Vision
      • 3.5.3Magnetic field
    • 3.6Thermoregulation
    • 3.7Size
  • 4Ecology
    • 4.1Food and feeding
      • 4.1.1Insects
      • 4.1.2Fruit and nectar
      • 4.1.3Vertebrates
      • 4.1.4Blood
    • 4.2Predators, parasites, and diseases
  • 5Social behaviour
    • 5.1Social structure
    • 5.2Communication
  • 6Reproduction and life history
    • 6.1Strategies
    • 6.2Mating
    • 6.3Life cycle
    • 6.4Life expectancy
  • 7Interactions with humans
    • 7.1Conservation
    • 7.2Cultural significance
    • 7.3Economics
  • 8See also
  • 9Notes
  • 10References
  • 11External links

Etymology[change | change source]

An older English name for bats is flittermouse, which matches their name in other Germanic languages (for example German Fledermaus and Swedish fladdermus), related to the fluttering of wings. Middle English had bakke, most likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka ("night-bat"), which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- (to Modern English bat) influenced by Latin blatta, "moth, nocturnal insect". The word "bat" was probably first used in the early 1570s. The name "Chiroptera" derives from Ancient Greek: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and πτερόν – pteron, "wing".

Phylogeny and taxonomy[change | change source]

The early Eocenefossil microchiropteran Icaronycteris, from the Green River Formation

Evolution[change | change source]

The delicate skeletons of bats do not fossilise well, and it is estimated that only 12% of bat genera that lived, have been found in the fossil record. Most of the oldest known bat fossils were already very similar to modern microbats, such as Archaeopteropus (32 million years ago). The extinct bats Palaeochiropteryx tupaiodon (48 million years ago) and Hassianycteris kumari (55 million years ago) are the first fossil mammals whose colouration has been discovered: both were reddish-brown.

Bats were formerly grouped in the superorder Archonta, along with the treeshrews (Scandentia), colugos (Dermoptera), and primates. Modern genetic evidence now places bats in the superorder Laurasiatheria, with its sister taxon as Fereuungulata, which includes carnivorans, pangolins, odd-toed ungulates, even-toed ungulates, and cetaceans. One study places Chiroptera as a sister taxon to odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla).

Boreoeutheria
Euarchontoglires (primates, treeshrews, rodents, rabbits)
Laurasiatheria
Eulipotyphla (hedgehogs, shrews, moles, solenodons)
Scrotifera
Chiroptera (bats)
Fereuungulata
Ferae
Pholidota (pangolins)
Carnivora (cats, hyenas, dogs, bears, seals)  
Euungulata
Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, rhinos)
Cetartiodactyla (camels, ruminants, whales)  
Phylogenetic tree showing Chiroptera within Laurasiatheria, with Fereuungulata as its sister taxon according to a 2013 study

The phylogenetic relationships of the different groups of bats have been the subject of much debate. The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor already capable of flight. This hypothesis recognised differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a natural or monophyletic group.

Chiroptera
MegachiropteraPteropodidae (megabats)
Microchiroptera
Rhinolophoidea
Megadermatidae (false vampire bats)
Craseonycteridae (Kitti's hog-nosed bat)
Rhinopomatidae (mouse-tailed bats)
Hipposideridae (Old World leaf-nosed bats)
Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats)
Yangochiroptera
Miniopteridae (long winged bat)
Noctilionidae (fisherman bats)
Mormoopidae(Pteronotus)
Mystacinidae (New Zealand short-tailed bats)
Thyropteridae(disc-winged bats)
Furipteridae
Mormoopidae(Mormoops)
Phyllostomidae (New World leaf-nosed bats)
Molossidae (free-tailed bats)
Emballonuridae (sac-winged bats)
Myzopodidae
Emballonuridae(Taphozous)
Natalidae (funnel-eared bats)
Vespertilionidae (vesper bats)
Internal relationships of the Chiroptera, divided into the traditional megabat and microbat clades, according to a 2011 study

Genetic evidence indicates that megabats originated during the early Eocene, and belong within the four major lines of microbats. Two new suborders have been proposed; Yinpterochiroptera includes the Pteropodidae, or megabat family, as well as the families Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Craseonycteridae, Megadermatidae, and Rhinopomatidae.Yangochiroptera includes the other families of bats (all of which use laryngeal echolocation), a conclusion supported by a 2005 DNA study. A 2013 phylogenomic study supported the two new proposed suborders.

Chiroptera
Yangochiroptera (as above)
Yinpterochiroptera
Pteropodidae (megabats)
Rhinolophoidea
Megadermatidae (false vampire bats)
horseshoe bats and allies
Internal relationships of the Chiroptera, with the megabats subsumed within Yinpterochiroptera, according to a 2013 study

Giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus In the 1980s, a hypothesis based on morphological evidence stated the Megachiroptera evolved flight separately from the Microchiroptera. The flying primate hypothesis proposed that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. For example, the brains of megabats have advanced characteristics. Although recent genetic studies strongly support the monophyly of bats, debate continues about the meaning of the genetic and morphological evidence.

The 2003 discovery of an early fossil bat from the 52 million year old Green River Formation, Onychonycteris finneyi, indicates that flight evolved before echolocative abilities. Onychonycterishad claws on all five of its fingers, whereas modern bats have at most two claws on two digits of each hand. It also had longer hind legs and shorter forearms, similar to climbing mammals that hang under branches, such as sloths and gibbons. This palm-sized bat had short, broad wings, suggesting that it could not fly as fast or as far as later bat species. Instead of flapping its wings continuously while flying, Onychonycterisprobably alternated between flaps and glides in the air. This suggests that this bat did not fly as much as modern bats, but flew from tree to tree and spent most of its time climbing or hanging on branches. The distinctive features of the Onychonycteris fossil also support the hypothesis that mammalian flight most likely evolved in arboreal locomotors, rather than terrestrial runners. This model of flight development, commonly known as the "trees-down" theory, holds that bats first flew by taking advantage of height and gravity to drop down on to prey, rather than running fast enough for a ground-level take off.

The molecular phylogeny is controversial, as it points to microbats not having a unique common ancestry, which implies that some seemingly unlikely transformations occurred. The first is that laryngeal echolocation evolved twice in bats, once in Yangochiroptera and once in the rhinolophoids. The second is that laryngeal echolocation had a single origin in Chiroptera, was subsequently lost in the family Pteropodidae (all megabats), and later evolved as a system of tongue-clicking in the genus Rousettus. Analyses of the sequence of the vocalization gene FoxP2 were inconclusive on whether laryngeal echolocation was lost in the pteropodids or gained in the echolocating lineages. Echolocation probably first derived in bats from communicative calls. The Eocene bats Icaronycteris (52 million years ago) and Palaeochiropteryx had cranial adaptations suggesting an ability to detect ultrasound. This may have been used at first mainly to forage on the ground for insects and map out their surroundings in their gliding phase, or for communicative purposes. After the adaptation of flight was established, it may have been refined to target flying prey by echolocation. Bats may have evolved echolocation through a shared common ancestor, in which case it was then lost in the Old World megabats, only to be regained in the horseshoe bats; or, echolocation evolved independently in both the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera lineages. Analyses of the hearing gene Prestin seem to favour the idea that echolocation developed independently at least twice, rather than being lost secondarily in the pteropodids.

Classification[change | change source]

See also: List of bats and List of fruit bats

Bats are placental mammals. After rodents, they are the largest order, making up about 20% of mammal species. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus classified the seven bat species he knew of in the genus Vespertilio in the order Primates. Around twenty years later, the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach gave them their own order, Chiroptera. Since then, the number of known species has risen to over 1,200, traditionally classified as two suborders: Megachiroptera(megabats), and Microchiroptera (microbats/echolocating bats). Not all megabats are larger than microbats. Several characteristics distinguish the two groups. Microbats use echolocation for navigation and finding prey, but megabats apart from those in the genus Rousettus do not, relying instead on their eyesight. Accordingly, megabats have a well-developed visual cortex and good visual acuity. Megabats have a claw on the second finger of the forelimb. The external ears of microbats do not close to form a ring; the edges are separated from each other at the base of the ear.Megabats eat fruit, nectar, or pollen, while most microbats eat insects; others feed on fruit, nectar, pollen, fish, frogs, small mammals, or blood. "Chiroptera" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904

The following classification from Agnarsson and colleagues in 2011 reflects the traditional division into megabat and microbat suborders.

  • Order Chiroptera
    • Suborder Megachiroptera
    • Suborder Microchiroptera
      • Yangochiroptera (unranked)
        • Family Emballonuridae
        • Family Furipteridae
        • Family Miniopteridae
        • Family Molossidae
        • Family Mormoopidae
        • Family Mystacinidae

cialized jaw.[1]:35 Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth: this is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents.[2] Cats, like dogs, walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[3]

Cats walk very precisely. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait will change to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals: the diagonally opposite hind and forelegs will move at the same time.[4] Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[5] On the inside of the front paws there is something which looks like a sixth "finger". This special feature, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on other cats and on dogs.

Behaviour[change | change source]

Cats are active carnivores,[6] meaning they hunt live prey. Their main prey is small mammals (like mice). They will also stalk, and sometimes kill and eat, birds. Cats eat a wide variety of prey, including insects, and seem especially to like house flies and bluebottles. Their main method of hunting is stalk and pounce. While dogs have great stamina and will chase prey over long distances, cats are extremely fast, but only over short distances. The basic cat coat colouring, tabby (see top photo), gives it good camouflage in grass and woodland. The cat creeps towards a chosen victim, keeping its body flat and near to the ground so that it cannot be seen easily, until it is close enough for a rapid dash or pounce. Cats, especially kittens, practice these instinctive behaviours in play with each other or on small toys.

Cats are quiet and well-behaved animals, making them popular pets. Young kittens are playful. They can easily entertain themselves with a variety of store-bought or homemade toys. House cats have also been known to teach themselves to use lever-type doorknobs and toilet handles.[7]

Cats are fairly independent animals. They can look after themselves and do not need as much attention as dogs do.

Communication[change | change source]

Cats use many different sounds for communication, including meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling, squeaking, chirping, clicking and grunting.[8]

Body posture is also important. The whole shape of the body changes when a cat is relaxed, or when it is alert. Also, the position of their ears and tail are used for communication, as well as their usual functions.

These ways of communication are very important. They are used between a mother cat and her kittens. They are also used between male and female cats; and between cats and other species, such as dogs. A mother cat protecting her kittens will fight off the largest dog. She gives good warning with a frightening display, hissing furiously, showing her claws, arching her back, and making her hair stand on end. If that fails, she attacks the dog's face with her claws. It has been said that no dog ever tries such an attack a second time.[9]

Mating[change | change source]

Cats only mate when the queen is "in heat". Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last 4 to 6 days.[10] Mating in cats is a spectacular event. Several toms may be attracted to a queen in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female will reject the male, but eventually the female will allow the male to mate. The female will utter a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her. This is because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120-150 backwards-pointing spines, which are about one millimeter long;[11] upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which is a trigger[12] for ovulation. After mating, the female will wash her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to breed with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes. once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[10]

Because ovulation is not always triggered, females may not get pregnant by the first tom which mates with them.[13] A queen may mate with more than one tom when she is in heat, and different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[10] The cycle ceases when the queen is pregnant.

The gestation period for cats is about two months, with an average length of 66 days.[14] The size of a litter is usually three to five kittens. Kittens are weaned at between six and seven weeks, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males).[10] Females can have two to three litters per year, so might produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding life of about ten years.[10]

Birth and after[change | change source]

Pregnant queens deliver their litters by themselves, guided by instinct. The queen finds the safest place she can. Then she will clean it thoroughly, with her tongue, if necessary. Here she will quietly give birth. She licks the newborn kits clean. In the wild, leaving a scent is risking a dangerous encounter with other animals. The kits are born blind and with closed eyes. They suckle on her teats, and sleep a good deal. After two weeks or so, their eyes open. At that stage they have blue eyes, but not the best sight. A bit later, the best developed kit will totter out of the nest. The others follow. They will soon recognise you as a living thing: that is a great moment. At first, they go back to the nest to feed and sleep. After some more days they leave the nest for good, but still they may sleep together in a 'kitten heap'.

The queen, meanwhile, has left the nest from time to time, to hunt, feed, and also to urinate and defecate. Unlike the tom, she covers up her business to hide her scent. Very soon, the kits will urinate anywhere they please unless one trains them. This is done after they are weaned, when they are ready for some kitten food. Here is how to do it:

1. Prepare clean cat tray filled with absorbent grit.
2. Give kittens their special kitten food.
3. Take the lead kitten right after it has eaten, place it in your cat tray.
4. Gently stroke its tummy with one finger.
5. Watch as kitten sits down promptly and urinates. Do same for other kits.
6. Repeat next time if they need it. They will not need a third time.

What you have done is exactly what the queen would do in the wild. You have triggered a reflex which all kittens have. The thing is, the tray is artificial, and your queen may do her business outside. But at least when young, kittens need a tray. Your next job is to call the vet, who will tell you when to bring the kits for their vaccination.[15]

Kittens play endlessly. It is how they do their learning. They will play their favourite games, such as 'hide and pounce', with almost anyone or anything. Soft balls on strings are a standard toy; so is a scratching post.

With cats there is a limit to how far you can train them. They are at least as intelligent as dogs, but they are not pack animals. They like to do their own thing, and owners do best by fitting in. Never hit a cat: if you do, the relationship will never be the same again. If you really want to dissuade them, try hissing. Also, a noise they do not like will make them leave. It has been said that no one really owns a cat; many cats collect extra owners, and may change house if they do not like the treatment...[16]

If your kitten was born in your home do not let it out of the house until it is two to three months old. If you have the mother, she will look after the kit. But if you have got the kit from a vet or dealer, keep it in for several weeks. When it does go out, you need to watch over it. The main problem is that it may easily get lost. In time, the kit will learn every inch of the house and garden. Then, you can happily let it roam.[17]

Grooming[change | change source]

Food[change | change source]

Health concerns[change | change source]

1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s1And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

2And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

3And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and s

Cats do get diseases, and prevention is better than cure. It is most important to get a young cat vaccinated against some of the most deadly diseases. If a cat gets a disease, a veterinarian (animal doctor) can offer help. Some cats, depending on breed, gender, age, and general health, may be more susceptible to disease than others. Regular visits to a vet can keep a cat alive many extra years by catching sickness and disease early.[18]

Cats that roam outside will get fleas at some time. Cat fleas will not live on people, but fleas will not hesitate to bite anyone nearby. Owners may choose to buy anti-flea collars, but any areas where the cat normally sleeps need to be cleaned up. A vet or local pet-shop may offer advice about fleas. It is recommended that people quickly take action when a cat gets fleas because fleas can make cats uncomfortable.

House cats can become overweight through lack of exercise and over-feeding. When they get spayed or neutered ("fixed"), they tend to exercise less. Spaying is done for queens, and neutering is done for toms. It is important to fix cats, and here are some reasons. First of all, if a female cat has kittens, they will need homes. Finding homes for kittens is often quite difficult. If a tom is not fixed, it develops a disgusting smell. Breeders who have entire toms keep them in a special hut outside the house, for that reason. Fixing also helps to avoid over-population. Over-population means that there are too many cats, and some will be put to sleep (put down) in animal pounds (animal shelters).

Kittens are sometimes born with defects. People who receive cats as gifts are recommended to get it examined for its health. Some birth defects, like heart problems, require urgent vet attention. Others are harmless, like polydactyly. Polydactyly means many digits, or many "fingers" from poly (many) and dactyl (digit). Sometimes, there is a mutation (change) in cat families. Most cats have only four to five toes per paw, depending on whether it is the front or back paw. These mutated cats have six, seven, and in rare cases even more. All of these cats are called polydactyl cats. They can also be called Hemingway cats because author Ernest Hemingway owned many of these cats.

Other matters[change | change source]

Where to find more information[change | change source]

There are quite a number of reference books on cats. Look for titles like Encyclopedia of the cat, or Cat encyclopedia.

Other cat pages[change | change source]

Other meanings of the word 'cat'[change | change source]

  • As a verb, "to cat" means to pull a ship's anchor to rest at its cathead. It can also mean to look for a mate.
  • Cat can be a short nickname for Katherine, Kathleen, Caitlin, Catalina, Katrina and Catarina.

References[change | change source]

Other websites[change | change source]

The cat on the right is fed up with the cat on the left and this is a semi-serious warning.
The stripes on this standard tabby cat help it hide in long grass and bushes. It's a kind of camouflage.
A typical brown Burmese cat
A very young kitten. This kitten has been taken out of the nest for a photo; its eyes are just open, but it cannot yet see properly.
  1. Case, Linda P. (2003). The cat: its behavior, nutrition, and health. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Pr. ISBN 0-8138-0331-4. 
  2. Smith, Patricia; Tchernov, Eitan (1992). Structure, function and evolution of teeth. Freund Publishing House Ltd. p. 217. ISBN 965-222-270-4. 
  3. ↑Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M. (1999). "Motor patterns in walking". News Physiol. Sci.14 (4): 168–174. PMID 11390844. 
  4. Christensen, Wendy (2004). Outwitting cats. Globe Pequot. p. 23. ISBN 1-59228-240-7. 
  5. ↑Danforth, C.H. (1947). "Heredity of polydactyly in the cat". Journal of Heredity38 (4): 107–112. PMID 20242531. http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/4/107.full.pdf. 
  6. ↑http://www.felinefuture.com/
  7. ↑YouTube - Gizmo Flushes
  8. "Meows mean more to cat lovers". Channel3000.com. Retrieved 2006-06-14. 
  9. ↑Konrad Lorenz 1950. Man meets dog.
  10. 10.010.110.210.310.4"Prolific cats: the estrous cycle"(PDF). Veterinary Learning Systems. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  11. ↑Aronson L.R. & Cooper M.L, LR (1967). "Penile spines of the domestic cat: their endocrine-behavior relations". Anat. Rec.157 (1): 71–8. doi:10.1002/ar.1091570111. ISSN 0003-276X. PMID 6030760. http://www.catcollection.org/files/PenileSpines.pdf. 
  12. ↑Trigger: in the sense of an event which starts other events.
  13. ↑Wildt D.E; Seager S.W. & Chakraborty PK, DE (1980). "Effect of copulatory stimuli on incidence of ovulation and on serum luteinizing hormone in the cat". Endocrinology107 (4): 1212–7. doi:10.1210/endo-107-4-1212. ISSN 0013-7227. PMID 7190893. 
  14. ↑Tsutsui T. & Stabenfeldt G.H (1993). "Biology of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the domestic cat". J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl.47: 29–35. ISSN 0449-3087. PMID 8229938. 
  15. How to look after your cat: there are two books with this title, as follows. 1. by Colin and Jacqui Hawkins, Walker Books, 1996. 2. by Alan Edwards, Southwater, 2006.
  16. ↑Gallico, Paul. The silent miaow: a cat's eye view of Homo sapiens. Heinemann, London.
  17. Behrend, Katrin (1991). The Complete Book of Cat Care: how to raise a happy and healthy cat. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. ISBN 0-8120-4613-7. 
  18. ↑[Anon.] 1983. Sherley's cat book: the complete book of cat care written by a vetinary surgeon. Ashe Laboratories, Leatherhead, Surrey.

Pets are like family members. They amuse us, delight us or drive us mad, just as other family members do. On the farm where I grew up, there was a menagerie of cats, dogs, pet lambs, cows and horses. They shaped my childhood almost as much as my family did.

1ColourAdjectives

The adjectives that apply to your family can often be used to describe your pets. One set of handy adjectives that you can also learn in connection with animals is the colours.

2 Animal Sounds

♥Der Hund bellt.The dog barks.
♥Der Hund jault. The dog howls.
♥Die Kuh muht. The cow moos.
♥Die Katze miaut. The cat miaows.
♥Das Schaf blökt. The sheep bleats.
♥Die Maus piepst. The mouse squeaks.

See if you can deduce the infinitive of the six verbs given in these sentences and check your answers at the bottom of this page. Being able to work out the infinitive allows you to look verbs up in a dictionary, where they are always listed under this base form.

3 Some Animals

4 Two Quizlets

Once you have cycled through the Quizlet of animal names, you could play the Space Race game to check your memory, but don’t forget to untick the „stuff in parentheses“ button, or you will have to type in the plural as well.

The Quizlet below contains some sample sentences in which pets and farm animals play a part. To play the Scatter Game with this Quizlet, click HERE.

5 Story

The quiz below is a simple story about a boy and his cat. First of all, you can listen to the story. 

To read the story text while listening, click HERE.

6 Quiz based on story

To see the quiz on the whole screen, click HERE.

Bens Katze » Free online quiz software

7 Deducing the infinitive verb

Figuring out the infinitive for the animal sound verbs above – take off the third person singular „t“ ending and add -en to the verb stem.

This works for the great majority of German verbs. When Germans make up new verbs, they always add the standard -en ending. For instance, they have adopted many English words and then added -en, as in the verbs chillen and chatten, which mean to chill out and to chat on the internet respectively.

Infinitives of animal sound verbs above:bellen, jaulen, muhen, miauen, blöken, piepsen

8 Another animal story

The fill-the-gap exercise below is another little story about pets. This one is based on true events, so the story is still happening. The girl who wants rats as house pets is a real person and so is her long-suffering mother. 

To complete the exercise on the whole screen, click HERE.

0 comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *