Comics Research Bibliography Software

Comics studies (also comic art studies, sequential art studies or graphic narrative studies)[1] is an academic field that focuses on comics and sequential art. Although comics and graphic novels have been generally dismissed as less relevant pop culturetexts, scholars in fields such as semiotics, composition studies and cultural studies are now re-considering comics and graphic novels as complex texts deserving of serious scholarly study.

Not to be confused with the technical aspects of comics creation, comics studies exists only with the creation of comics theory—which approaches comics critically as an art—and the writing of comics historiography (the study of the history of comics).[2] Comics theory has significant overlap with the philosophy of comics, the study of the ontology,[3][4]epistemology[5] and aesthetics[6] of comics, the relationship between comics and other art forms, and the relationship between text and image in comics.[3]

Theorizing comics[edit]

Although there has been the occasional investigation of comics as a valid art form, specifically in Gilbert Seldes' The 7 Lively Arts (1924), Martin Sheridan's Classic Comics and Their Creators (1942), and David Kunzle's The Early Comic Strip: Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadsheet from c. 1450 to 1825 (1973), contemporary Anglophone comics studies in North America can be said to have burst onto the academic scene with both Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art in 1985 and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics in 1993. Continental comics studies can trace its roots back to the work of semioticians such as Roland Barthes (particularly his 1964 essay "Rhetoric of the Image", published in English in the anthology Image—Music—Text)[7] and Umberto Eco (particularly his 1964 book Apocalittici e integrati).[8]

More recently, analysis of comics have begun to be undertaken by cognitive scientists, the most prominent being Neil Cohn, who has used tools from linguistics to detail the theoretical structure of comics' underlying "visual language", and has also used psychological experimentation from cognitive neuroscience to test these theories in actual comprehension. This work has suggested similarities between the way that the brain processes language and the way it processes sequential images.[9] Cohn's theories are not universally accepted with other scholars like Thierry Groensteen, Hannah Miodrag, and Barbara Postema offering alternative understandings.

Defining comics[edit]

"Comics ... are sometimes four-legged and sometimes two-legged and sometimes fly and sometimes don't ... to employ a metaphor as mixed as the medium itself, defining comics entails cutting a Gordian-knotted enigma wrapped in a mystery ..."

— R. C. Harvey, 2001

Similar to the problems of defining literature and film, no consensus has been reached on a definition of the comics medium, and attempted definitions and descriptions have fallen prey to numerous exceptions. Theorists such as Töpffer,R. C. Harvey, Will Eisner,David Carrier, Alain Rey, and Lawrence Grove emphasize the combination of text and images, though there are prominent examples of pantomime comics throughout its history. Other critics, such as Thierry Groensteen and Scott McCloud, have emphasized the primacy of sequences of images. Towards the close of the 20th century, different cultures' discoveries of each other's comics traditions, the rediscovery of forgotten early comics forms, and the rise of new forms made defining comics a more complicated task.

Composition studies[edit]

In the field of composition studies, an interest in comics and graphic novels is growing, partially due to the work of comics theorists but also due to composition studies' growing focus on multimodality and visual rhetoric. Composition studies theorists are looking at comics as sophisticated texts, and sites of complex literacy.

Gunther Kress defines multimodality as "the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these mode are combined"[20] or, more simply as "any text whose meanings are realized through more than one semiotic code".[21]

Kristie S. Fleckenstein sees the relationship between image and text as "mutually constitutive, mutually infused"—a relationship she names "imageword". Fleckenstein sees "imageword" as offering "a double vision of writing-reading based on [the] fusion of image and word, a double vision of literacy".[22]

Dale Jacobs sees the reading of comics as a form of "multimodal literacy or multiliteracy, rather than as a debased form of print literacy".[23] According to Jacobs, comics can help educators to move "toward attending to multimodal literacies" that "shift our focus from print only to multiple modalities".[24] He encourages educators to embrace a pedagogy that will give students skills to effectively negotiate these multiple modalities.

Educational institutions[edit]

Comics studies is becoming increasingly more common at academic institutions across the world. Some notable examples include: University of Florida,[25]University of Toronto at Mississauga,[26] and University of California Santa Cruz,[27] among others. West Liberty University is currently the only university offering a four-year undergraduate literature degree in comics studies.[28] In Britain, growing interest in comics has led to the establishment of a center for comics studies, the Scottish Centre for Comics Studies (SCCS) at the University of Dundee in Scotland.[29] Beside formal programs and degrees, it is common to see individual courses dedicated to comics and graphic novels in many educational institutions.[30]

Sol M. Davidson's New York Universitythesis, Culture and the Comic Strips, earned him the first PhD in comics in 1959,[31][32] while in France, Jean-Christophe Menu was awarded a Doctorate in Art and Art Sciences in 2011 from Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne after defending his thesis The Comics and its Double: Language and Frontiers of Comics : Practical, Theoretical and Editorial Prospects.[33][34]

The University of Lancaster started offering a PhD degree in comics studies in 2015.[35] The same year French comics studies scholar Benoît Peeters (a student of Roland Barthes) was appointed as the UK's first ever comics professor at Lancaster University.[36]

Scholarly publications[edit]

Since 2000 many new scholarly journals have appeared dedicated to comics studies. Three of the most important peer refereed journals in English are: Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics, Studies in Comics, and European Comic Art. Other notable journals include: ImageTexT (a peer reviewed, open access journal that began in the spring of 2004 and is based at the University of Florida), Image and Narrative (stylized as Image [&] Narrative, a peer-reviewed e-journal on visual narratology), SANE journal: Sequential Art Narrative in Education out of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, and the International Journal of Comic Art.


Although presentations dedicated to comics are commonplace at conferences in many fields, entire conferences dedicated to this subject are becoming more common. There have been conferences at SAIC (International Comic Arts Forum), MMU (The International Bande Dessinée Society Conference), UTS (Sequential Art Studies Conference), Georgetown, Ohio State (Festival of Cartoon Art),[37] and Bowling Green (Comics in Popular Culture conference),[38] and there is a yearly conference at University of Florida (Conference on Comics and Graphic Novels).[39] Additionally, there is an annual Michigan State University Comics Forum, which brings together academics and professionals working in the industry. Notable regularly held movable conferences include the Comic Art and Comics Area of the Popular Culture Association of America and the conference of the International Society for Humor Studies.[37]

The International Comics Arts Forum (ICAF), begun in 1995 at Georgetown University by Guy Spielmann and Tristan Fonlladosa, is an annual academic conference distinguished by its international focus and scholarly rigor[40] The German Gesellschaft für Comicforschung (ComFor, Society for Comics Studies) has organized yearly academic conferences since 2006.[41] The Comics Arts Conference has met regularly since 1992 in conjunction with San Diego Comic-Con International and WonderCon.[42] Another important conference is the annual International Graphic Novels and Comics Conference held since 2010 organized by British academics. This conference has been held in conjunction with the longer running International Bande Dessinée Society conference. Comics Forum, a UK-based community of international comics scholars, also holds an annual conference at Leeds Central Library; the first was held in 2009.[43]

See also[edit]



  1. ^Pramod K. Nayar, The Indian Graphic Novel: Nation, History and Critique, Routledge, 2016, p. 13.
  2. ^Benoît Crucifix, "Redrawing Comics into the Graphic Novel: Comics Historiography, Canonization, and Authors' Histories of the Medium", "Whither comics studies?" panel, International conference of the French Association for American Studies, Toulouse (France), May 24–27, 2016.
  3. ^ abAaron Meskin, "The Philosophy of Comics", Philosophy Compass6(12), December 2011, pp. 854–864.
  4. ^Iain Thomson, in his "Deconstructing the Hero" (in Jeff McLaughlin, ed., Comics as Philosophy (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005), pp. 100–129), develops the concept of comics as philosophy.
  5. ^Meskin, Aaron and Roy T. Cook (eds.), The Art of Comics: A Philosophical Approach, Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, p. xxxi.
  6. ^David Carrier, The Aesthetics of Comics, Penn State University Press, 2000, Part 1: "The Nature of Comics."
  7. ^Roland Barthes, "Rhétorique de l'image", Communications4(1), 1964, pp. 40–51, translated as "Rhetoric of the Image", in: Roland Barthes, Image–Music–Text, essays selected and translated by Stephen Heath, New York 1977, pp. 32–51.
  8. ^Umberto Eco, Apocalittici e integrati: comunicazioni di massa e teorie della cultura di massa, Bompiani, 1964. Cf. also: Umberto Eco (1972). "Epilogue", in: Walter Herdeg and David Pascal (eds.): The Art of the Comic Strip, Zurich: The Graphis Press.
  9. ^Neil Cohn, The Visual Language of Comics: Introduction to the Structure and Cognition of Sequential Images, London: Bloomsbury, 2013, p. 1ff.
  10. ^Kress, Gunther and Theo Van Leeuwen (2001). Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. Arnold Publishers. p. 20. 
  11. ^Kress, Gunther and Theo van Leeuwen (2006). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 177. 
  12. ^Fleckenstein, Kristie (2003). Embodied Literacies: Imageword and a Poetics of Teaching. Southern Illinois University Press. p. 2. 
  13. ^Jacobs, Dale. "Marvelling at The Man Called Nova: Comics as Sponsors of Multimodal Literacy". The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. 59 (2): 182. 
  14. ^Jacobs, Dale. "Marvelling at The Man Called Nova: Comics as Sponsors of Multimodal Literacy". The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. 59 (2): 201. 
  15. ^"UF | Comics Studies | Studying Comics at UF". 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  16. ^Visual Culture Studies - University of Toronto Mississauga.
  17. ^Spiegelman, Art. "Comix 101." Lecture. Porter College, University of California, Santa Cruz, April 1992.
  18. ^Graphic Narrative Major
  19. ^"Scottish Centre for Comics Studies". Retrieved 2016-11-28. 
  20. ^"UF | Comics Studies | Teaching Comics". 2007-04-09. Retrieved 2009-11-23. 
  21. ^Sol M. Culture and the Comic Strips. Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1959.
  22. ^Sol & Penny Davison Collection - George A. Smathers Libraries.
  23. ^Article about Jean-Christophe Menu presenting his thesis at the Sorbonne.
  24. ^
  25. ^"Lancaster University offers doctorate in comic books". 2015-11-25. Retrieved 2016-06-06. 
  26. ^"'Great snakes!' Tintin expert appointed UK's first comics professor". 2015-11-26. Retrieved 2016-06-06. 
  27. ^ ab"Regularly Held Conferences".
  28. ^Robert G. Weiner (ed.), Graphic Novels and Comics in Libraries and Archives: Essays on Readers, Research, History and Cataloging, McFarland, 2010, p. 264.
  29. ^"Comics Conference". 
  30. ^"The History of ICAF". .
  31. ^"Gesellschaft für Comicforschung". Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  32. ^The Comics Arts Conference and Public Humanities.
  33. ^"Comics Forum". Comics Forum. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 

Works cited[edit]

  • Beaty, Bart (2012). Comics Versus Art. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-9627-3. 
  • Groensteen, Thierry (Spring 2012). "The Current State of French Comics Theory". Scandinavian Journal of Comic Art. 1 (1): 111–122. 
  • Grove, Laurence (2010). Comics in French: The European Bande Dessinée in Context. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-588-0. 
  • Harvey, R. C. (2001). "Comedy at the Juncture of Word and Image". In Varnum, Robin; Gibbons, Christina T. The Language of Comics: Word and Image. University Press of Mississippi. pp. 75–96. ISBN 1-57806-414-7. 
  • Thomas, Evan (2010). "10: Invisible Art, Invisible Planes, Invisible People". In Aldama, Frederick Luis. Multicultural Comics: From Zap to Blue Beetle. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73743-3. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ayaka, Carolene and Ian Hague (eds.), Representing Multiculturalism in Comics and Graphic Novels, Routledge, 2014.
  • Bongco, Mila, Reading Comics: Language, Culture, and the Concept of the Superhero in Comic Books, Routledge, 2014.
  • Booker, M. Keith (ed.), Comics through Time: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2014.
  • Booker, M. Keith (ed.), Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010.
  • Bramlett, Frank (ed.), Linguistics and the Study of Comics, Springer, 2012.
  • Bramlett, Frank, Roy Cook and Aaron Meskin (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Comics, Routledge, 2016.
  • Burke, Liam, The Comic Book Film Adaptation: Exploring Modern Hollywood's Leading Genre, University Press of Mississippi, 2015.
  • Caswell, Lucy Shelton and Jared Gardner, Drawing the Line: Comics Studies and INKS, 1994–1997, Ohio State University Press, 2017.
  • Cohn, Neil (ed.), The Visual Narrative Reader, Bloomsbury, 2016.
  • Denson, Shane, Christina Meyer, Daniel Stein, Transnational Perspectives on Graphic Narratives: Comics at the Crossroads, Bloomsbury, May 23, 2013.
  • Dong, Lan (ed.), Teaching Comics and Graphic Narratives: Essays on Theory, Strategy and Practice, McFarland, 2012.
  • Duncan, Randy and Matthew J. Smith, The Power of Comics: History, Form and Culture, Continuum, 2009.
  • Fuchs, Wolfgang J. and Reinhold Reitberger, Comics: Anatomy of a Mass Medium, Little Brown & Co, 1972.
  • Gabilliet, Jean-Paul, Of Comics and Men: A Cultural History of American Comic Books, University Press of Mississippi, 2010.
  • Groensteen, Thierry, Comics and Narration, University Press of Mississippi, 2013.
  • Groensteen, Thierry, The System of Comics, University Press of Mississippi, 2009.
  • Hague, Ian, Comics and the Senses: A Multisensory Approach to Comics and Graphic Novels, Routledge, 2014.
  • Harvey, R. C., The Art of the Funnies: An Aesthetic History, University Press of Mississippi, 1994.
  • Harvey, R. C., The Art of , University Press of Mississippi, 1996.
  • Hajdu, David, The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America, Picador, 2009 (originally Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008).
  • Hatfield, Charles, Alternative Comics: An Emerging Literature, University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
  • Heer, Jeet and Kent Worcester (eds.), A Comics Studies Reader, University Press of Mississippi, 2009.
  • Jones, Gerard, Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book, Basic Books, 2005.
  • Kukkonen, Karin, Studying Comics and Graphic Novels, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
  • Lund, Martin, Re-Constructing the Man of Steel: Superman 1938–1941, Jewish American History, and the Invention of the Jewish–Comics Connection, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
  • Magnussen, Anne and Hans-Christian Christiansen (eds.), Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics, Museum Tusculanum Press, 2000.
  • McLaughlin, Jeff (ed.), Comics as Philosophy, University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
  • Meesters, Gert, "Creativity in Comics. Exploring the Frontiers of the Medium by Respecting Explicit Self-imposed Constraints," in Tony Veale, Kurt Feyaerts, Charles Forceville (ed.), Creativity and the Agile Mind: A Multi-Disciplinary Study of a Multi-Faceted Phenomenon, Walter de Gruyter, 2013, pp. 275–292.
  • Miller, Ann and Bart Beaty (eds.), The French Comics Theory Reader, Leuven University Press, 2014.
  • Miodrag, Hannah, Comics and Language: Reimagining Critical Discourse on the Form, University Press of Mississippi, 2013.
  • Petersen, Robert S. , Comics, Manga, and Graphic Novels: A History of Graphic Narratives, ABC-CLIO, 2011.
  • Pizzino, Christopher, Arresting Development: Comics at the Boundaries of Literature, U of Texas Press, 2016.
  • Postema, Barbara, Narrative Structure in Comics: Making Sense of Fragments, Boydell & Brewer, 2013.
  • Pustz, Matthew (ed.), Comic Books and American Cultural History: An Anthology, Continuum, 2012.
  • Saraceni, Mario, The Language of Comics, Routledge, 2003.
  • Schmitz-Emans, Monika (ed.), Comic und Literatur: Konstellationen, Walter de Gruyter, 2012.
  • Smith, Matthew and Randy Duncan (eds.), Critical Approaches to Comics: Theories and Methods, Routledge, 2012.
  • Smith, Matthew and Randy Duncan (eds.), The Secret Origins of Comics Studies, Routledge, 2017.
  • Stein, Daniel and Jan-Noël Thon (eds.), From Comic Strips to Graphic Novels: Contributions to the Theory and History of Graphic Narrative, Walter de Gruyter, 2015.
  • Waugh, Coulton, The Comics, University Press of Mississippi, 1991 (originally Macmillan, 1947).
  • Weiner, Robert G. (ed.), Graphic Novels and Comics in Libraries and Archives: Essays on Readers, Research, History and Cataloging, McFarland, 2010.
  • Williams, Paul and James Lyons (eds.), The Rise of the American Comics Artist: Creators and Contexts, University Press of Mississippi, 2010.
  • Wright, Bradford W., Comic book nation: The transformation of Youth Culture in America, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

External links[edit]

9e Art: Les Cahiers du Musée de la bande dessinée: edited by Thierry Groensteen, France. 1996-?.

Comicalités. Études de culture graphique: edited by Berthou Benoît. "entend interroger la spécificité ainsi que l'évolution des modes d’expression, de production et de réception de la bande dessinée, de l'illustration, de la caricature, du dessin animé." 2013-present. PR

Comics Anno Jahrbuch der Forschung zu populär-visuellen Medien: edited by Hans-Jürgen Kagelmann. 1991-1995.

The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship: edited by Ernesto Priego. "[This journal’s purpose is to make original, media-specific contributions to the field of comics scholarship and to advance the appreciation of comic art." 2011-present. PR

Deutsche Comicforschung: edited by Eckart Sackmann. 2005-present.

European Comic Art: edited by Laurence Grove, Mark McKinney, and Ann Miller, and published by Liverpool University Press. "The first English-language scholarly publication devoted to the study of European-language graphic novels, comic strips, comic books and caricature." PR

Historietas: Revista de estudios sobre la Historieta: edited by José Joaquín Rodríguez and Manuel Barrero. Universidad de Cádiz, Spain. 2011-present. PR?

ImageText: edited by Donald Ault; published by the University of Florida, USA. Winter 2005-present. PR

inks: cartoon and comic art studies: edited by Lucy Shelton Caswell, and published by Ohio State University, USA. 1994-1997. (contents via MSU) PR

International Journal of Comic Art: edited and published by John Lent, Temple University, USA, Spring 1999-present.

Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics: edited by David Huxley and Joan Ormrod, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. 2010-present. PR

Mechademia: edited by Frenchy Lunning, and published by University of Minnesota Press. "An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga and the Fan Arts. Mechademia’s subject area extends from manga and anime to game design, fashion, graphics, packaging, and toy industries, as well as a broad range of fan practices related to popular culture in Japan." 2006-present. PR

Nona Arte: Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas em Histórias em Quadrinhos: edited by Roberto Elisio dos Santos and Waldomiro Vergueiro. "Divulgar artigos científicos sobre histórias em quadrinhos e temas correlatos resultantes de pesquisas acadêmicas desenvolvidas por pesquisadores do Brasil e do exterior, além de dar espaço a resenhas de publicações de caráter científico sobre quadrinhos publicadas no Brasil ou no exterior e de registrar o panorama de atividades (trabalhos acadêmicos, exposições, eventos, etc) sobre histórias em quadrinhos desenvolvidas no país.." Brazil. 2020-present. PR

Revista latinoamericana de estudios sobre la historieta: edited by Irma Armas Fonseca. 2001-present. PR?

SANE journal: edited by James Bucky Carter. "[P]ublishes research- and practioner-based articles covering all intersections of comics and education, from pre-kindergarten to post-secondary studies, from a variety of disciplines." 2010-present. PR

Scandianvian Journal of Comic Art: edited by Ralf Kauranen, Erin La Cour, Rikke Platz Cortsen, and Fredrik Strömberg. "Although global in its scope, publishing high quality research despite national or regional boundaries, the journal is rooted in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) and has the ambition to reflect and incite discussion in the field of comics studies in these countries." Spring 2012-present. PR

SIGNs – Studies in Graphic Narratives: edited by Fabio Gadducci. "Focusing on Comics (or, in contemporary jargon, Graphic Novels), from modern times up to the early decades of the 20th century." 2007-1012? PR

Studies in Comics: edited by Julia Round, Chris Murray, Dean Chan, and M. Thomas Inge; published by Intellect. "[A]ims to describe the nature of comics, to identify the medium as a distinct art form, and to address the medium’s formal properties." 2010-present. PR

Tebeosfera: edited by Antonio Moreno, Spain. 2001-present

The following journals do not specialize in comic art but have been know to publish articles on this and/or related subjects:

Adaptation: "academic articles, film and book reviews, including both book to screen adaptation, screen to book adaptation, popular and ‘classic’ adaptations, theatre and novel screen adaptations, television, animation, soundtracks, production issues and genres in literature on screen." PR

Animation: edited by Maureen Furniss. "[T]he first peer-reviewed scholarly journal devoted to animation history and theory.." Fall 1992-present. PR

Image [&] Narrative: edited by Jan Baetens, Belgium. 2000-present. PR

Journal of Popular Culture: See also "Bibliography of Comics Articles in the Journal of Popular Culture"PR

Studies in American Humor: Affiliated with the American Humor Studies AssociationPR?

textimage: 2007-present. PR?

Transformative Works and Cultures: "the academic arm of the nonprofit fan advocacy group Organization for Transformative Works" PR

Word & Image: Affiliated with the International Association for Word & Image Studies / Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Rapports entre Texte et Image (IAWIS/AIERTI)PR

Journals which have published special issues devoted to comic art:

20th Century Studies 13/14 (December 1975): Politics in Cartoon and Caricature.

American Periodicals 17.2 (2007): Periodical Comics and Cartoons, edited by Lucy Shelton Caswell and Jared Gardner.

Amerikanstudien/American Studies 56.4 (2011): American Comic Books and Graphic Novels.

Belphégor 4.1 (November 2004): L'étude de la bande dessinée; Belphégor 5.1 (December 2005): L'étude de la bande dessinée II.

Biography 31.1 (2008): Autographics, edited by Gillian Whitlock and Anna Poletti.

CIRCAV: Cahiers Interdisciplinaires de la Recherche en Communication Audio Visuelle no. 19 (2007): La bande dessinée à l'épreuve du réel, edited by Pierre Alban Delannoy.

College Literature 38.3 (2011): Visual Literature.

Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 6.1 (2009): Forum.

Communications 24 (1976): La Bande dessinée et son discours.

Composition Studies 43.1 (Spring 2015): special issue on comics, multimodality, and composition, edited by Dale Jacobs.

Critical Engagements 3.1 (2009): Reassessing the Graphic Novel, edited by Lawrence Phillips, Lorna Jowett, Chris Ringrose, Nathan Wiseman-Trowse.

Critical Inquiry 40.3 (Spring 2014): Comics & Media, edited by Hillary Chute and Patrick Jagoda.

English Languange Notes 46.2 (Fall/Winter 2008): Graphia: The Graphic Novel and Literary Criticism, edited by William Kuskin.

Hermès 54 (2009): La Bande dessinée. Art reconnu et média méconnu, edited by Éric Dacheux.

Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies 6 (Spring 2005): Comics, edited by Corey Creekmur and Thomas Keegan.

Journal of Popular Culture 12.4 (1979): In Depth Section: The Comics as Culture, edited by M. Thomas Inge.

MEI: Médiation & information no. 26 (2007): Poétiques de la bande dessinée, edited by Derek Parker Royal.

MELUS 52.4 (2007): Coloring America: Multi-Ethnic Engagements with Graphic Narrative, edited by Pierre Fresnault-Deruelle and Jacques Samson.

MFS: Modern Fiction Studies 52.4 (2006): Graphic Narratives, edited by Hillary Chute and Marianne DeKoven.

Participations: Journal of Audience & Reception Studies 6 (Spring 2005): Special Section: Comic-Book Audiences. PR

Print: America's Graphic Design Magazine 42.6 (November/December 1988): Comics: A Special Issue.

Philosophy Now 73 (May / June 2009): Comics & Philosophy issue.

PS: Political Science and Politics 40.2 (April 2007): The State of the Editorial Cartoon.

PS: Political Science and Politics 47.1 (Jan. 2014): The Politics of the Superhero, edited by Kent Worcester and Matthew Costello.

RELIEF 2.3 (2008): La Bande dessinée, edited by Jan Baetens and Sjef Houppermans.

SCAN: Journal of Media Arts Culture 5.2 (September 2008): Reading Between the Panels (Part I).

SCAN: Journal of Media Arts Culture 6.1 (June 2009): Reading Between the Panels (Part II).

SCAN: Journal of Media Arts Culture 9.1 (June 2012): Reading Between the Panels (Part III).

Shofar 29.2 (2011): on Jewish comics and graphic novels.

The Society of American Archaeology Archaeological Record 5.5 (November 2005): Cartoons in Archaeology (PDF).

Studies in American Humor no. 30 (2014): Mad Magazine and its Legacies, edited by Judith Yaross Lee and John Bird.

Substance 40.1 (2011): Graphic Narrative & Narrative Theory, edited by Jared Gardner and David Herman.

Textyles 36-37 (2010): La Bande dessinée contemporaine, edited by Björn-Olav Dozo and Fabrice Préyat.

Theory, Culture & Society 26.2-3 (2009): Special Issue on Ubiquitous Media (some manga/anime content).

Transatlantica 1 (2010): Comic Books, edited by Bart Beaty and Jean-Paul Gabilliet.

Transformative Works and Cultures 13 (2013): Appropriating, Interpreting, and Transforming Comic Books.

Urgences 32 (1991): Lectures de bande dessinée, edited by Yves Lacroix.

Visual Arts Research 38.1 (Summer 2012): Graphic Novels in Art Education, edited by B. Stephen Carpenter II and Kevin Tavin.

ZAA: Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 59.1 (2011): Beyond Moore, Miller, Maus: Literary Approaches to Contemporary Comics, edited by Tim Lanzendörfer and Matthias Köhler.

Regularly Held Conferences

February: University of Florida's Conference on Graphic Novels (USA)

March/April (Easter/Passover weekend): Comic Art & Comics Area, Popular Culture Association (USA) (movable conference; comics papers also presented in the Asian Popular Culture Area and other Areas)

May:Sequential Art Studies Conference, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia - status uncertain

July: Comic Arts Conference, San Diego Comic-Con International, USA

Summer:International Society for Humor Studies (varies)

September/October:International Comic Arts Forum, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, USA - formerly the International Comic Arts Festival

October (every three years):Festival of Cartoon Art, Ohio State University, USA

Various:The International Bande Dessinee Society Conference, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

Special Conferences(most recent listed first)

January 31, 2009: Graphica in Education: Graphic Novels come out from Under the Desk, Fordham University Graduate School of Education, New York City

May 18-19, 2006:International Conference on Asian Comics, Animation & Gaming, York University, Toronto

November 19-21, 2004:CRLMC Conference: Mythology and Comic Book Art / Mythe et bande dessinée, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France

May 8-9, 2004: La linea inquieta. Emozione e ironia nel fumetto / The Troubled Line: Emotion and Irony in Comics, Bologna, Italy.

May 12-13, 2000:Second International Conference on the Graphic Novel, KU Leuven, Belgium.

May 9-10, 1998:Fumettopolis, Turin, Italy.

Discussion Lists/Organizations

Post-Secondary Schools for Studying Comic Art - About Comics 

Post-Secondary Schools for Studying Comic Art - Making Comics 

Fellowship & Scholarship Opportunities for Students

For Current and Recent Graduate-Level Students

Swann Foundation Fellowships from The Library of Congress' Caroline and Erwin Swann Foundation for Caricature and Cartoon. "To be eligible, one must be a candidate for an M.A. or Ph.D. degree in a university in the United States, Canada or Mexico and working toward the completion of a dissertation or thesis for that degree, or be engaged in postgraduate research within three years of receiving an M.A. or Ph.D." Annual award.

For University- and College-Level Students

The Jay Kennedy Memorial Scholarship from the National Cartoonists Society Foundation. "Applicants must be college students in the United States, Canada or Mexico that will be in their Junior or Senior year of college" during the next academic year.

Comics in Colleges & Universities

Comics in Primary, Middle & Secondary Schools

Building Literacy Connections with Graphic Novels: Page by Page, Panel by Panel. 2007. Edited by James Bucky Carter. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Cary, Stephen.Going Graphic: Comics at Work in the Multilingual Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004. 218pp. ISBN 0325004757 (paper). Buy It!

Rourke, James. 2010. The Comic Book Curriculum: Using Comics to Enhance Learning and Life. Libraries Unlimited.

Thomas, James L. 1983. Cartoons in the Classroom: A Reference for Teachers and Librarians. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. 181pp. ISBN 0872873579 (cloth). Buy It!

Thomas, Rebecca L. and Catherine Barr. 2005. Popular Series Fiction for Middle School and Teen Readers. Westport, CT & London: Libraries Unlimited. 515pp. ISBN 1591582024 (hc). Buy It!

Thompson, Terry. 2008. Adventures in Graphica: Using Comics and Graphic Novels to Teach Comprehension, 2-6. Stenhouse Publishers. 200pp.

Thurman, Mark and Emily Hearn. 2010. Get Graphic! Using Storyboards to Write and Draw Picture Books, Graphic Novels, and Comic Strips. Pembroke Publishers. 96pp.

Weblink: Cognitive Comics: A Constructivist Approach to Sequential Art - "for the purposes of submission to the the State University of New York College at Buffalo Office of Undergraduate Research."

Weblink: The Comic Book Project - "an arts-based literacy and learning initiative hosted by Teachers College, Columbia University with materials published by Dark Horse Comics."

Weblink: Comics in the Classroom .net - and a Pop Thought interview with's Scott Tingley

Weblink:  Educating with Comics, by Leonard Rifas. AIGA Design Forum, posted June 28, 2005.

Weblink:  The Graphic Classroom, by Chris Wilson. "Promoting the use of high quality comic literature in the elementary, middle school, and high school classroom."

Weblink: The Maryland Comic Book Initiative - see also Industry News via partner Diamond Comics Distributors

Weblink: Teaching with Comics via  

Other On-Line Resources


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