Evolution Of Buildability Analysis Essay

Buildability is progressively become a major demand in edifice building pattern. The purpose of buildability is usage to better the efficiency of overall edifice procedure by developing building sensitive designs.

Presents, in Malaysia building industry, there have confronting a batch of job that will hinder the undertaking to treat swimmingly. In this research, it will foreground what buildability is. Through this we can deeply understand what buildability is and how of import it was in the building industry.

Furthermore, in this research, we wish to happen out and place the buildability attributes in constructing design in Malaysia building industry. There are many buildability properties have impacting in the edifice design. If the buildings proceed without a good buildability direction, it will convey many jobs to the undertaking. So in this research, besides that placing the buildability attributes, we besides wish to happen out the importance degree for each of these properties.


This study are aim to happen out the factors that affect buildability of constructing design in the Malayan building industry.


In order to accomplish the purpose of the study, the following are the aims of this research

To analyze what is buildability and factors may impact it in constructing design

To happen out and place the buildability attributes in constructing design in the Malayan building industry

To mensurate the degree of importance of different buildability properties


Literature Review

The intent of the literature reappraisal is given us to understanding what buildability in the building industry is and how of import it was. This research methodological analysis may include definitions, thoughts and patterns of related subjects. Besides that, we can analyze and reexamine to the relevant books, diaries, cyberspace and etc. , every bit known as secondary informations, that related to the subject – buildability. Through those reappraisal beginnings, the of import point will be noted down and convenience for us to composing the literature reappraisal.

The below are demoing that the literature hunt that will be carried out: –

Specify the definition of buildability/ constructability

Specify the rule and construct of buildability/ constructability

Determine the factor impacting buildability in constructing design in building

Determine the edifice properties and the degree of importance for each property


Questionnaire is recommended as one of the research method, because it is easier for analysing the information, economical and the hypothesis can be tested. Questionnaire is a research instrument dwelling of a series of inquiries and/or in difference grouping for the intent of garnering the information from respondents.

To derive more information of this research, transcripts of questionnaire will be sent out to the building companies and they are needed to show their sentiments based on their experience. In this questionnaire, there are empty infinites provide for the respondents to giving their remark or propose other edifice properties which are non included. This questionnaire will aim to the professionals such as designer, applied scientist, undertaking director, measure surveyor and others in the contractor industry house in Malaysia.

From the research rubric, to find the degree of importance of buildability properties in this research, the categorization of the evaluation graduated tables is used. The questionnaire is based on LIKERT SCALE format. It is a widely used instrument in mensurating sentiments. A likert point is merely a statement which the respondent is asked to measure harmonizing to any sort of subjective or nonsubjective standards and by and large the degree of understanding or dissension is measured. 5 point likert graduated table being used as it may bring forth somewhat higher average tonss relative to the highest come-at-able mark.

The categorizations of the evaluation graduated tables are as follows:




Very Important




Reasonably Important


Small Important


Not Very Important

Tables and Graphs to show the consequences

This will be carried out in the concluding phase of research methodological analysis. The results/ remarks get from the respondents will be analyze and present in tabular array or graph in order to supply a clearer position of overall research with composing up the contents of the thesis. Besides this, analysis and reading would be done to garner all the information and information.


Chapter 1- Introduction

Chapter 1 provides an debut of the chapter that giving a brief about our proposal. In this chapter it includes introduction/ background, job statement, purpose, aims, research methodological analysis and working plan for the thesis.

Chapter 2 – Literature Reappraisal

Through the reappraisal of literature/ articles related to our research topic the of import point will be written in this chapter. Diaries, books and information from the cyberspace will be the beginning of the information or information to making this buildability rubric thesis. This chapter are aim to supply a chief image of the cognition to us before the research is carried out.

Chapter 3 – Research Design and Methodology

Questionnaire will be designed based on the nonsubjective and information that we want to happen out. These questionnaires will be sent to different building industry companies in Malaysia to roll up informations to carry on following measure of thesis.

Chapter 4 – Data Analysis and Results Discussions

The collected information from the respondents will be evaluated and analyzed in tabular array or graph with account.

Chapter 5 – Decisions

This chapter will reason and urge the overall consequences of the study for farther research.


Crowther, .P. “ Design For Buildability and The Deconstruction Consequences ” , Design for Deconstruction and Materials Reuse, CIB Publication 272.

Lam, P.T.I. , Wong, F.K.W. , Wong, F.W.H. 2007. “ Building characteristics and site-specific factors impacting buildability in Hong Kong ” , Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol 5, No 2.

Mydin S.H. , Zin R.M. , Majid M.Z.A, Zahidi M. and Memon A.H. 2011. “ Buildability Attributes at Design Phase In Malayan Building Construction ” , International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & A ; Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 1.

Wong, F.W.H, Lam, P.T.I, Chan, E.H.W. and Wong F.K.W. 2006. “ Factors Affecting Buildability of Building Design ” , Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33.7, pg 79



“ Buildability ” or “ constructability ” has a immense country of survey and it was really of import in a building industry. The purpose of these literature reappraisals are to analyze and foreground the country that the buildability attributes that may impact the edifice design in Malaysia building industry.

The first reviews that will concentrate in this chapter are definition of buildability, so coming up with the rules and constructs of buildability which have defined by different states. Furthermore, this reappraisal besides focuses on the factors that may impact the buildability by place the buildability attributes in constructing design.



Since the buildability is of import in the building industry, so there are many research workers from different states has identified and defined buildability based on their surveies.

Based on the several articles surveies and resources, it found that the one of the widely definition that can be accepted which is define by the Construction Industry Research and Information Association ( CIRIA ) , 1983, it stated that the “ buildability is the extent to which the design of a edifice facilitates easiness of building, capable to the overall demands for the completed edifice ” ( Wong, Lam, Chan and Wong, 2006B.p. 796 ) .

Besides the definition defined by CIRIA, there besides have another definition which was founded with specific purpose of bettering the building entire quality direction and the overall cost effectivity and defined as “ constructability is the effectual and timely integrating of building cognition into the conceptual planning, design, building and field operation of a undertaking to accomplish the overall undertaking aims in the best possible clip and truth at the most cost-efficient degree ” by Construction Industry Institute ( every bit known as CII ) in twelvemonth 1986 ( Wong, et.al, 2006B.p. 796 ) .

Harmonizing to The Construction Industry in Australia ( CIIA ) , Griffith and Sidwell ( 1997 ) , has defined constructability as a system “ to incorporate if building cognition in the undertaking bringing procedure and equilibrating the assorted undertaking and environmental restraints to accomplish the undertaking ends and edifice public presentation at the optimum degree. “ ( Wong, et.al, 2006B.p. 796 )

Buildability Performance Research Group ( BPRG ) , Chen and McGeorge ( 1994 ) , defined buildability as “ the extent to which determinations, made during the whole edifice procurance procedure, finally facilitate the easiness of building and the quality of the completed undertaking ” which buildability as a direction to goals the undertaking by acknowledge the factors affected the undertaking ( Eng, 2002.p. 117 ) .

In the other manus, there are other research workers have derived their ain definitions based on their perusal in buildability, such as: –

Ferguson ( 1989 ) ; buildability was defined as “ the ability to build a edifice expeditiously economically and to hold quality degrees from its component stuffs, constituents and sub-assemblies ” ( Wong, et.al, 2006B.p. 796. )

Williams ( 1982 ) ; buildability was defined as the “ most economic and efficient manner of seting a edifice together. “ ( Yang, 2004 )

Illingworth ( 1984 ) ; buildability was defined as “ a design and inside informations which recognize the assembly procedure in accomplishing the coveted consequence safety and at least cost to the client. “ ( Yang, 2004 )

In twelvemonth 1996, Moore has modified the definition defined by Illingworth as a “ design doctrine, which is recognizes and addresses the jobs of the assembly procedure in accomplishing the building of the design merchandise, both safety and without resort to standardisation or undertaking degree simplification. “ ( Yang, 2004 )

Lueprasert ( 1996 ) , constructability has defined as “ an of import feature of structural design and site conditions of building undertaking which determines the degree of complexness of put to deathing the correlate structural assembly undertakings. “ ( Yang, 2004 )

Furthermore, there are few research workers believed that constructability are significantly different with buildability. The differences between buildability and constructability are that buildability is a design-oriented construct but constructability is concern the whole undertaking processing. But besides have some research workers thought that there are no difference between buildability and constructability, the lone is buildability is normally used in UK and constructability is frequently used in USA. ( Yang, 2004 )


Harmonizing to Eng, ( 2002, p. 112 ) , “ ” Buildability ” or “ Constructability ” has been used and evolved in the building direction in the late 1970 ” s in United Kingdom, but its potency was non been to the full exploited in building industry at the clip. ” Nowadays, buildability is progressively become an built-in portion of the building industry in many states because it was a technique used to pull off the building procedure during the pre-construction phase. Harmonizing to Low et.al, ( 2008 ) , buildability purpose is to guarantee the impacts of design inside informations are recognized and considered in the earlier phase to cut down and/or prevent mistakes, holds and allows a cost control to the overall undertaking others. Together with this, it will heighten the productiveness and fight of the industry. Furthermore, Low survey besides stated the summarized of buildability rules that defined by some research workers such as Adams ( 1989 ) , Ferguson ( 1989 ) , Gray ( 1984 ) , Griffith and Sidwell ( 1995 ) , Tatum ( 1987 ) and others every bit shown as below: –

Efficiency and economical edifice production ; “ to guarantee efficient and economical production of a edifice, a logical organisation of the sequence of assembly is necessary. The edifice organisation must guarantee continuity of building work by holding nutrient direction due to labours, machineries and stuffs bringing to accomplish this rule ( O’Connor, 1985 ) . ”

Simplicity ; “ this rules stating that the interior decorators of the undertaking must seek to bring forth the simplest possible inside informations compatible with the overall demand for the edifice particularly for the edifice ‘s group of elements ( Ferguson, 1989 ; Bishop, 1985 ) . ”

Tolerance Level ; “ the edifice design should acknowledge its tolerances which are usually come-at-able under site conditions. Different the stuffs and constituents used on site have its different composing and different jointing methods required. Therefore, practical degree of tolerance adopted is necessary for the stuffs and constituents ( Ferguson, 1989 ) . ”

Invention ; “ use any advanced thoughts that can heighten the buildability of a undertaking. The contractor should seek to convey in new machineries or methods of working that can better the productiveness and let building procedure more efficiency. Before bring in the thoughts, consideration of the degree of accomplishments available in industry is required. ( Tatum, 1987 ) . ”

Proper programming ; “ a good programming of plants may let building proceed swimmingly and right on path. The building sequence should be practical to let for a uninterrupted flow of work to minimise holds of plants ( Gugel and Russell, 1994 ) . ”

Repeat and standardisation ; “ to cut down clip devouring for buildings, the edifice elements should be design that encourages appropriate repeat and standardisation, it may assist to cut down cost, hazard and mistake by utilizing readily and standard points in building ( Adams, 1989 ; Ferguson, 1989 ) . ”

Engagement and communicating ; “ undertaking squad members with relevant cognition should be promote to take part all degree of building. They can give their sentiment and suggestion during early planning phase to cut down job in future. Clear undertaking information should be planned and coordinated to accommodate the building procedure and ease the best possible communicating and understanding on site ( Fischer and Tatum, 1997 ) . ”

Avoid harm by subsequent plants ; “ the design should enable the plants that carried out will non hold hazard of harm due to adjacent finished elements and with minimal demands for particular protection. This would cut down the demand for return visits to site to mend harm. By making few times look intoing to the completed plant is better to cut down the undertaking completion period ( O’Connor and Tucker, 1986 ) . ”

( Beginning: Low et.al, 2008 )

McGeorge and Palmer ( 1997 ) have identified that buildability and constructability is the lone direction construct to hold been designed and developed by the building industry ( Eng, 2002 ) . This is because they think that the separation of designs and building procedures is alone to the building industry. Eng besides mentioned that the study in early 1960 ‘s, “ division between the procedure of design and building was recognized as lending to inefficiencies throughout the building industry. ” ( Eng, 2002 ) .Emmerson ( 1962 ) has identified that deficient certification before stamp, inefficient pre-contract design processs and deficiencies of communicating among the designers, advisers and contractors appointed are the factors that cause the job occurred ( Eng, 2002 ) . Furthermore, Banwell, ( 1964 ) suggested that “ the contractor who is excessively far from the design phase for his specialised cognition can be take part in traditional catching state of affairs. ” ( Eng, 2002.p. 111 ) .In the other manus, Banwell study besides highlighted that “ the complexnesss of modern building and its demand for specialised techniques demand that the design procedure and the building phase should non be regarded as separate Fieldss of activity. ” ( Eng, 2002.p. 111 )


Through different groups of research workers, a figure of phases in the development of the buildability or constructability construct are been identified and related to research attempts in different parts ( Eng, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Eng ( 2002 ) survey, it shows the groups of research workers from different states that have evaluated the development of buildability/constructability, which are:

Construction Industry Research and Information Association ( CIRIA ) ; UK

Construction Industry Institute ( CII ) ; USA

Construction Industry Institute of Australia ( CIIA )

Constructing Performance Research Group ( BPRG ) ; University of Newcastle in Australia

“ In the early research taken by CIRIA and UK researches, they regarded that buildability is job that arose from the division between builders and interior decorators ; led research workers to concentrate on proficient issue and site and building planning ( Gray, 1983 ; Adam, 1989 ; Ferguson, 1989 ) . ” ( Eng, 2002.p. 112 )

Besides that, Eng stated that most industry research workers and observers are tended to see buildability as a map that is within the influence or control of the interior decorator. Illingworth ( 1984 ) has suggested that “ the job of buildability was become deteriorate because the interior decorators and professional squad are resented contractors involve and giving their sentiments during the design phase. “ ( Eng, 2002.p. 112 )

In add-on, CII had used industry instance surveies to look into the constructability job in building industry to let the research workers to understanding the issues. This carried out the apprehension of different phases of undertaking life rhythm which would associate to different issues in constructability ( Eng, 2002 ) .

Furthermore, CIIA besides used the instance surveies to enable a holistic position to be maintained. CIIA have proposed 12 rules would be relevant with different accents due to the different undertaking life rhythm. For BPRG at University of Newcastle in Australia, they started with gestate the buildability job as one that derived from a complex system and they proposed that the constructs of buildability is needed to acknowledge the factors in a undertaking environment which may impact in the design procedure, building procedure and the nexus between them ( Eng, 2002 ) .


The definition of buildability defined by CIRIA has shown at the above. Though that we know that CIRIA definition is focused between designs and building ; the factors has been implied which are entirely within the influence or control of the design squad those have a important impact on the easiness if building of a undertaking ( Eng, 2002 ) . The construct was recognized as an issue within an incorporate design direction context. A good buildability are formed based on a edifice design, construction or other which had been consider in the building stage with accent on the method of building, activities, sequence of plants and manner incorporated into the overall design ( Eng, 2002 ) .

In extra, Eng survey had demoing the 16 guiding rules for accomplishing buildability which was identified and developed by Adams ( 1989 ) , CIRIA, as below: –

Investigate thoroughly

See handiness at the design phase

See storage at design phase

Design for early enclosure

Design for minimal clip below land work

Suitable stuffs use

See for the local accomplishment available

Design for simple assembly

Plan for maximize repeat and standardisation

Maximize the usage of works

Allow for reasonable tolerances

Allow for a practical sequence of operations

Plan to avoid alteration to work

Avoid return visits on site ; make it right in first clip

Safe building design

Clearly communicating

( Beginning: Adam, ( Eng, 2002 ) )


Harmonizing to Eng ( 2002 ) , has mentioned that CII used instance surveies to place different of demands for the planning phase ( Tatum et.al, 1986 ) , technology and procurement stages of a undertaking ( O’Connor et.al. , 1986 ) and betterment of constructability that able to do during field operations ( O’Connor and Davis, 1988 ) . In extra, they had identified and presented 6 constructs for the planning phase, 7 constructs for the design and procurement stage and 1 for field operations phase which demoing below: –

Conceptual Planning Phase

Basic design attacks consider major building methods

Constructability plans are an built-in portion of undertaking of undertaking execution programs

Undertaking planning requires building cognition and experience

Early building engagement in the development of undertaking scheme

Undertaking agendas are building sensitive

Site layouts show efficient of building

Design and Procurement Stage

Design for handiness, stuffs and equipment

Design for building in inauspicious conditions and remotes locations

Design and procurement agendas are building sensitive

Design to enable efficient building

Design elements are standardise

Construction and procurance efficiency are specifications developed

Design for modularization to ease fabrication/transportation

Field Operation

Contractors use advanced methods

( Beginning: Tatum et.al ; O’Connor et.al ; O’Connor and Davis ; ( Eng, 2002 ) )


For CIIA, they have review to the work of CII, and some developed building information within the Australian context ( Eng, 2002 ) . At the beginning, they are 17 rules are being identified and tested. In the other manus, more than 20 of the forces who experienced in building are given feedback due to this tested. Through the trial, Constructability Principles File ( CIIA, 1992 ) has shown 12 constructs of constructability to stand for current best pattern applicable over five undertakings life rhythm phases, which are feasibility surveies phase, conceptual design phase, inside informations design phase, building phase and station – building phase ( Eng, 2002 ) . The 12 rules espoused were: –




Constructability must be made an built-in portion of undertaking program.

Construction Knowledge

Undertaking planning must actively affect building cognition and experience.

Team Skills

Undertaking squad must be appropriate for the undertaking based on their experience, accomplishments and etc.

Corporate Aims

Project squad understanding against client ” s corporate and project aim to better constructability.

Available Resources

Technology usage in design solution must be matched with the accomplishments and resources available.

External factors

External factors might impact the cost and plan of the undertaking.

Plan of undertaking

Overall undertaking plan must be realistic and have the committedness of the undertaking squad.

Construction Methodology

Construction methodological analysis must be considered in undertaking design.


Constructability will be improved if handiness is considered good in the design phase of undertaking.


Constructability improved when efficiency considered in specification development.

Construction invention

Constructability improved when invention techniques is used


Post building analysis is undertaken to let constructability can be enhanced on future undertakings

Table Principles by CIIA ( Francis and Sidwell ( Eng, 2002 ) )


Harmonizing to Nawi, Kamar, Lee, Hamid, Abdullah, Haron and Ariff ( 2009 ) , stated that in Malaysia, the constructability and buildability constructs established by the Construction Industry Institute ( CII ) and other relevant literature by CIRIA, ( 1983 ) ; Tatum, ( 1987 ) ; Adams, ( 1989 ) ; CII, ( 1993 ) and etc, there are 23 constructability constructs were formulated and presented by Nima, ( 2001 ) which use them to use a survey in relation to the engineered building stages. There are 7 constructs for conceptual planning stage, 8 constructs for design and procurement stage and 8 constructs for field operation stages which as follows: –

C1-C7 ( Project constructability sweetening during conceptual planning stage )

Concept C1 – the undertaking constructability plan should be discussed and documented within the undertaking executing program, through the engagement of all undertaking squad members.

Concept C2 – a undertaking squad that includes representatives of the proprietor, applied scientist and contractor should be formulated and maintained to take the constructability issue into consideration from the beginning of the undertaking and through all of its stages.

Concept C3 – persons with current building cognition and experience should accomplish the early undertaking be aftering so that intervention between design and building can be avoided.

Concept C4 – the building methods should be taken into consideration when taking the type and the figure of contracts required for put to deathing the undertaking.

Concept C5 – the maestro undertaking agenda and the building completion day of the month should be construction-sensitive and should be assigned every bit early as possible.

Concept C6 – in order to carry through the field operations easy and expeditiously, major building methods should be discussed and analyses in-depth every bit early as possible to direct the design harmonizing to these methods.

Concept C7 – site layout should be surveies carefully so that building, operation and care proceed expeditiously and avoid any intervention between the operations performed during these stages.

C8-C15 ( Project constructability sweetening during design and procurance stages )

Concept C8 – design and procurance agendas should be dictated by building sequence. Therefore, the building agenda must be discussed and developed prior to the design development and procurance agenda.

Concept C9 – advanced information engineerings are of import to any field including field of building industry. The use of those engineerings could get the better of the job of atomization into specialised functions in this field, therefore heightening constructability.

Concept C10 – designs, with design simplification by interior decorators and design reappraisal by qualified building forces must be configured to enable efficient building.

Concept C11 – undertaking elements should be standardized to an extent that will ne’er impact the undertaking cost negatively.

Concept C12 – the undertaking proficient specifications should be simplified and configured to accomplish efficient building without giving the degree or the efficiency of the undertaking public presentation.

Concept C13 – the execution of modularization and preassembly for undertaking elements should be taken into consideration and studied carefully. Modularization and preassembly design should be prepared to ease fiction, transit and installing.

Concept C14 – undertaking design should take into consideration the building forces, stuffs and equipment handiness to the needed place on-site.

Concept C15 – design should ease building during inauspicious conditions conditions. Great accent should be made to be aftering for the building of the undertaking under suited conditions conditions, but the interior decorator must be after and take into consideration the undertaking elements that could be prefabricated in workshops.

C16-C23 ( Project constructability sweetening during field operation stages )

Concept C16 – field undertaking sequencing should be configured in order to minimise amendss or rework of some undertaking elements, minimise scaffolding demands, formwork used or congestion of building forces, stuff and equipment.

Concept C17 – invention in impermanent building materials/systems, or implementing advanced ways of utilizing available impermanent building materials/systems that have non been defined or limited by the design drawings and proficient specifications will lend positively to the sweetening of constructability.

Concept C18 – integrating invention of new methods in utilizing off-the-rack manus tools or alteration of the available tools or debut of a new manus tools that may cut down labour strength, addition mobility, safety or handiness will heighten constructability at the building stage.

Concept C19 – debut of advanced methods for utilizing the available equipment or alteration of the available equipment to increase their productiveness will take to a better constructability.

Concept C20 – in order to increase the productiveness, cut down the demand of scaffolding or better the undertaking constructability under inauspicious conditions conditions, builders should be encouraged to utilize any optional preassembly.

Concept C21 – constructability will be enhanced by promoting the builder to transport out invention of impermanent installations.

Concept C22 – good contractors, based on quality and clip, should be documented, so that contracts for future building plants would non be awarded based on low spots merely, but by sing other undertaking attributes.

Concept C23 – rating, certification and feedback of the issues of the constructability constructs should be maintained throughout the undertaking to be used in ulterior undertakings as lessons learned.

( Beginning: Nima el Al, ( Nawi, et.al, 2009 ) )

Although there are many research workers from different states have identified and presented their ain rules and constructs, but the points they covered are about the same. Through those rules and constructs, it demoing the ways to assist the building to cut down its undertaking clip, mistake, cost by holding a good buildability on manage overall undertaking.


Harmonizing to CIRC and Chiang et.al, has stated that the building industries are continues to seek out the ways to better buildability, such as the usage of prefabricated, standardized and modular constituents, every bit good as the acceptance of alternate procurance methods ( cited by Wong, Lam, Chan P.C. and Chan H.W. , 2006 ) , the Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) in Singapore had introduced and published a Code of Practice on Buildable Design to explicate how the Buildable Design Appraisal System ( BDAS ) works ( Building and Construction Authority, 2005 ) . They have quantified the buildability of designs based on 3 rules, which are “ standardisation ” , “ simpleness ” and “ individual incorporate elements ” ( Low et.al, 2008 ) .

Besides that, harmonizing to Poh and Chen, Low, Lam and BCA, it mentioned that the “ Buildability tonss ” ( BS ) has been represent in Singapore purpose to salvaging manpower ingestion on site. A design with higher the buildability tonss will let more efficient labour use in building, addition productiveness and besides the building quality ( cited by Wong et.al, 2006A ) . An overall buildability tonss will be calculated based on the building systems and besides the completing systems used, every bit good as edifice characteristics, edifice services facets and site specific factors that may impact in the edifice design. In ciphering overall edifice tonss, a set of buildability indices for different constituents of a design was used for the appraisal ( Wong et.al, 2006A ) .


There are many research workers has carried out many research of buildability such as buildability constructs, , buildability rules and others which are related and lending due to the buildability in design stages. Buildability attributes are really of import in the edifice design phase, its purpose to depict the features which straight or indirectly integrated the building cognition in edifice procedure, restriction and others to maximise the undertaking ends and edifice public presentation ( Mydin, Zin, Majid, Zahidi, Memon, 2011 ) . These buildability attributes largely are modified from the rules and constructs and sub-divided into few headers of buildability factors and few key of buildability factors. Based on the articles review, there are 63 buildability properties were developed through the interview and besides some literature reappraisal which done by Franky W.H. Wong, Patrick T.I. Lam, Edwin H.W. Chan and Francis K.W. Wong. They have grouped those edifice attributes into 16 headers and divided into 2 classs which is ( I ) related to the design procedure and ( two ) related to the end product for the design procedure.

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Table Buildability attributes by different research workers ( Wong et.al, 2004 )


Table Factors impacting buildability ( Wong et.al, 2004 )


Site- specific factor

The type and choice of site is really of import before the building start because it may impact the buildability. To avoid holds and cut down jobs cause during the building procedure, the site and land probe should be carried out such as topography study, overseas telegram sensing and others.

Below land

The plants which undertaken below land should be careful considered to minimise the building clip taken on below land, guarantee the safety and minimise the effects of plants due to environing edifice ( Adams, 1989 ) .


During the earlier building phase, see the possible timing to avoid transporting structural work and external work to forestall hinderance and harm by bad conditions ( Adams, 1989 ; Nima et.al, 1999 ) such as in Malaysia, the monsoon season will impact the building procedure.


The design solution encourages the use of advanced thoughts in the building site activities, the usage of impermanent building stuffs or systems to cut down usage of labor, better the undertaking quality and safety public presentation ( CIIA, 1996 ; Low and Abeyegoonasekera, 2001 ) .

Coordination and rationalisation of design information

To ease the building procedure on site, the design should let for easy communicating with the contractor at the workplace ( Adams, 1989 ; Griffith and Sidwell, 1995 ) . This attributes besides see the coordinating of drawings, specifications, specification updating and taking ambiguities or misinterpretations. By demoing the accurate places such as pipe arms or incursions, it may easier the contractor for understanding the design and carries out the plants.


The design inside informations should be kept as simple and simplify to cut down the acquisition curve consequence of site shopkeepers, therefore it better buildability. Furthermore, the specification of the tolerances should be specified in sensible. For illustration, sufficient tolerance demands to be specified to let window frame fixed onto window opening without making any accommodation or alteration. Besides that reasonable distinction between mill tolerances and site building tolerances, interior decorators should let for the job of tantrum at the interfaces between different merchandises ( Adam, 1989 ) .


Flexible designs may let contractors to choose building method before the building proceed and let doing alteration harmonizing to existent site conditions encountered. Similarly, adaptable design with interchangeable constituents provides room for alterations to accommodate different fortunes ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) .

Tools, works and equipment

Planing with cognition of works, tools and equipments for optimize usage of these points in building site. Accessibility of those during in the design and building phases is necessary for maximize constructability public presentation of the undertaking ( Adams, 1989 ; CIIA, 1996 ) . Designing besides for impermanent workss and equipments which anchorages in lasting construction is of import under this property.

Materials, adjustments, merchandises and subassemblies

Interior designers should utilize widely available and easy converted stuffs that can be worked on rapidly and economically for optimize buildability ( Ferguson, 1989 ) . Planing for locally or import available stuffs, adjustments, merchandises and subassemblies for building must be proven suited for the intents to forestall waste or alterations in hereafter.



Interior designers should be witting of job-site safety during design phase ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) . The interior decorator should take consideration that provide a safe working environment, leting safe sequence of trades and safety of workers during handling of stuffs and constituents for entree is necessary ( Adams, 1989 ) .

Site layout, entree and environment

Interior designers should believe over the entree, environment and site layouts during planing to supply a good handiness. For illustration, a building behavior may act upon nearby traffic conditions. It causes the vehicles hard to travel in or out and incommodiousness to them, let sufficient go throughing manner to get the better of this job. Furthermore, planing for allow sufficient working infinite for workers and workss, steps to avoid harm and nuisance such as noise, quiver, chemical waste and etc. due to milieus. The efficient location and distribution of impermanent plants and storage countries are besides necessary for a good buildability ( Ferguson, 1989 ) .

Use of resources

Seek out the methods during design phase will assist to better the buildability by planing for economical labor usage, widely available and various tools, works and equipment ( Ferguson, 1989 ; Griffith and Sidwell, 1995 ; Nima et.al, 1999 ) to cut down overall building cost. Furthermore, factors impacting the handiness of resources and accomplishments should be taken into consideration ( CIIA, 1996 ) . It was suggested that a realistic appraisal of the degrees of accomplishment likely to be available from suitably chosen contractors and specializers could be carry out to accommodate the accomplishments available locally ( Adams, 1989 ) .

Material systems

Optimize the use of stuff to forestall wastage and better buildability in the building. Unifying the pick of stuffs can assist to accomplish easiness of building because coordination jobs were likely to originate from designs that involve many different types of stuffs ( Griffith and Sidwell, 1995 ) . Select suited stuff based on their size during design may assist to minimise labour demands and besides the wastage cause by cutting plants ( Griffith and Sidwell, 1995 ) .

Installation sequence

Interior designers should bring forth the simplest inside informations compatible with the overall demands for the edifice to maximise the edifice public presentation ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) . Constructing designs with simple constellations enable the plants become easy and facilitate easiness of the building ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) . However, this facet must be balanced with the aesthetic demand of clients and artistic aspiration of interior decorators ( Mydin et.al, 2011 ) . Leting easy connection/interfacing between constituents, easy installing and flexibleness in erection/trade sequences besides the 1 should see under this property.


Standardization is the procedure of developing and implementing proficient criterions. It besides known as the one of the 3 cardinal rules of the Buildable Design Appraisal System ( BDAS ) that devised in Singapore to mensurate buildability public presentation of designs ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) . Standardization refers to the repeat of grids, sizes of constituents and connexion inside informations ( Wong et.al, 2006B ) . For illustration, columns or external facings work with repeated sizes will cut down the figure of mould alterations ( BCA, 2005 ) . In the same clip, standardisation helps bettering the productiveness, quality, cut downing undertaking cost and cut downing continuance to the building ( CIIA, 1996 ) .


Prefabrication is the pattern of piecing constituents of a construction in a mill or other fabrication site and transporting the complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the building site. For illustration, usage of precast constituents may cut down on-site operations ; hence better productiveness ( BCA, 2005 ) . By utilizing both standardisation and prefabrication together would ease better direction ( Gibb, 2001 ) .

( Beginning: Modified from Wong et.al, 2006B )

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