Most of us have heard the arguments about the devastating effects of global warming. We’ve also heard the arguments that the entire idea of global warming is a hoax.
While the topic continues to be debated, what’s not debatable is that you need to write an essay about global warming. (Yes, really, you do. Did you forget?)
So how do you even start writing an essay about global warming?
First, you’ll need to understand what type of essay you’re supposed to write.
- Do you need to write an expository essay in which you simply inform readers about some aspect of global warming?
- Are you supposed to write a problem/solution paper in which you explain a problem and its potential solutions?
Knowing what type of paper you need to write will shape the format, content, and of course, the type of sources you’ll need to support your claims. Not sure what type of paper you should be writing? Check your assignment guidelines!
Second, regardless of what type of paper you’re writing, you’ll need to choose credible sources.
Don’t choose blogs by some anonymous author. Don’t choose .com websites with sales pitches that only try to sell you something.
And don’t choose old, outdated articles written before you were born (unless you have a really good reason for using them, such as you’re using them in a historical discussion of the topic).
Remember: As you examine your sources, make sure they provide sufficient evidence to support your statements.
Third, start researching.
I know this step can be daunting, and right now you might be feeling a little unsure as to what kinds of sources to use for your paper. Don’t worry, I’m here to help.
Because you might be writing one of many types of papers about global warming, I can’t include a list of credible sources for every type of paper here, but I have included 12 global warming articles to help you get started on your next essay.
Along with a brief summary of each article, I’ve also included an MLA 8 and an APA citation to include on your Works Cited or References page, whichever is relevant.
(I haven’t included the date of access for the MLA citations. If your professor requires it, you’ll need to add the date you viewed the source.)
Remember, you’ll also need to cite each article with an in-text citation.
12 Global Warming Articles to Help Your Next Essay
Global warming article #1: Natural Resources Defense Council
Okay, so technically, this is an environmental action group website. The group’s mission is to protect the Earth. But the site’s information and articles focus on current environmental damage and how to help save and/or protect the planet.
The topic of global warming (sometimes called climate change) is pretty broad. So you might need to narrow your topic. This website touches on various global warming topics, including recycling, air quality, and sustainability.
You can use this website as inspiration to help you find a narrowed topic if you feel global warming is too broad for your paper.
Check out these sample essays to help generate ideas:
MLA 8 Citation
National Resources Defense Council. NRDC, www.nrdc.org.
National Resources Defense Council. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org
*Note: APA does not require a citation when citing the full website. If your instructor requires a Reference List entry, you could use the format above.
Global warming article #2: A Brief History of Climate Change
This article provides a historical timeline of global warming research and political action dating as far back as 1712.
It provides an overview of global warming and would be an excellent resource for background information or for added information regarding the political connection to climate change.
Looking for a good angle? Try reading this sample essay to generate some ideas: An Examination of the Literature on Environmental Politics.
MLA 8 Citation
“A Brief History of Climate Change.” BBC News, 20 Sep. 2013, www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-15874560.
“A brief history of climate change.” (2013, September 20). BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-15874560
Global warming article #3: A Sensitive Matter
This is an in-depth article that discusses the link between greenhouse gas emissions and rising temperatures. Though emissions have continued to rise, temperatures have not risen as much as expected.
This article is published in The Economist, a trusted print and online source.
For an idea of how an essay on this topic might look, read this sample essay: The Greenhouse Effect and the Global Warming as the Causes for the Rise of Temperature.
MLA 8 Citation
“A Sensitive Matter.” The Economist, 30 Mar. 2013, www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21574461-climate-may-be-heating-up-less-response-greenhouse-gas-emissions.
“A sensitive matter.” (2013, March 30). The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21574461-climate-may-be-heating-up-less-response-greenhouse-gas-emissions
Global warming article #4: Climate Change: The Case of the Missing Heat
Published in Nature (an international weekly journal of science), this article discusses a stall in global warming and examines scientific theories as to what effects oceans, trade winds, and emissions may have on global warming.
Scientists believe that, if their theories are correct, temperatures will spike once again.
Need a starting off point to explore how oceans and trade winds affect the climate? Read this sample essay: An Analysis of the Characteristics of El Nino, a Weather Phenomenon.
MLA 8 Citation
Tollefson, Jeff. “Climate Change: The Case of the Missing Heat.” Nature, Macmillan Publishers Limited, 15 Jan. 2014, www.nature.com/news/climate-change-the-case-of-the-missing-heat-1.14525.
Tollefson, J. (2014, January 15).“Climate change: The case of the missing heat.” Nature, 505, 276–278. doi:10.1038/505276a
Global warming article #5: Global Warming Prediction for Next 200 Years
Published in conjunction with ABC News, this story printed by Yahoo summarizes a study published in Nature Communications. The study indicates that the pace of climate change is “highly unusual” and could result in a climate warmer than it has been in the past 420 million years.
For some inspiration on how temperature increases might work as a topic for your essay, check out this example essay: The Growing Concerns Over the Rapid Rate of Global Warming Today.
MLA 8 Citation
Goenka, Himanshu, and Dana Royer. “Global Warming Prediction For Next 200 Years.” Yahoo, 5 Apr. 2017, gma.yahoo.com/global-warming-prediction-next-200-093916939.html.
Goenka, H., & Royer, D. (2017, April 5). Global warming prediction for next 200 years. Yahoo. Retrieved from http://gma.yahoo.com/global-warming-prediction-next-200-093916939.html
Global warming article #6: Al Gore Explains Why He’s Optimistic About Stopping Global Warming
This source is an interview transcript with Al Gore (Vice President of the United States from 1993–2001). Although many still deny the existence of global warming, Gore believes that, because conversations continue, advancements will continue, and eventually “national laws will evolve into global cooperation.”
If you’re looking for more information about Al Gore’s opinions on global warming, read this sample essay: An Analysis of the Global Warming Threat by Al Gore in the Film Inconvenient Truth.
MLA 8 Citation
Klein, Ezra. “Al Gore Explains Why He’s Optimistic about Stopping Global Warming.” The Washington Post, 21 Aug. 2013, www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/08/21/al-gore-explains-why-hes-optimistic-about-stopping-global-warming/?utm_term=.490976a3d77b.
Klein, E. (2013, August 21). Al Gore explains why he’s optimistic about stopping global warming. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/08/21/al-gore-explains-why-hes-optimistic-about-stopping-global-warming/?utm_term=.490976a3d77b
Global warming article #7: NASA, NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year on Record Globally
The content of this article can be summed up in its opening sentence: “Earth’s 2016 surface temperatures were the warmest since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).”
Published by NASA and NOAA, this article easily passes the CRAAP test and can be considered credible.
Need some insight on writing an essay about the surface temperature of Earth? Read this sample essay: An Examination of Increasement of Earth’s Surface Temperature.
MLA 8 Citation
“NASA, NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year on Record Globally.” NASA, 18 Jan. 2017, www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20170118/.
NASA, NOAA data show 2016 warmest year on record globally. (2017, January 18). NASA. Retrieved from http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ news/20170118/
Global warming article #8: Global Warming Solutions
Published by National Geographic, this article asserts that, in order to slow global warming, the world needs to stop emitting greenhouse gasses. Greenhouse gasses can be reduced by improving fuel economy in vehicles and relying more on alternative energy sources.
This article also links to additional global warming articles published by NatGeo.
Want to see how another student tackled the topic of solutions to global warming? Check out this sample essay: An Analysis of the Possible Solutions to Global Warming.
MLA 8 Citation
“Global Warming Solutions.” National Geographic, 8 Apr. 2017, www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/global-warming-solutions/.
Global warming solutions. (2017, April 8). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/global-warming-solutions/
Global warming article #9: Climate Change Is a Problem. But Our Attempts to Fix It Could Be Worse Than Useless
The Telegraph (a UK newspaper and website) argues that global warming is a real concern. However, media often misrepresents the truth about global warming for shock value.
This article emphasizes the need to carefully and realistically examine global warming in order to fix it. The article states that focusing on cutting emissions has not worked and “climate economics” should be examined in order to find more effective solutions.
Want to learn a little more about climate economics? Read this sample essay: A Review of the Economics of the Clean Air Act.
MLA 8 Citation
Lomborg, Bjorn. “Climate Change Is a Problem. But Our Attempts to Fix It Could Be Worse Than Useless.” The Telegraph, 3 Nov. 2014, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/climatechange/ 11205420/Climate-change-is-a-problem.-But-our-attempts-to-fix-it-could-be-worse-than-useless.html.
Lomborg, B. (2014, November 3). Climate change is a problem. But our attempts to fix it could be worse than useless. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/climatechange/ 11205420/Climate-change-is-a-problem.-But-our-attempts-to-fix-it-could-be-worse-than-useless.html
Global warming article #10: Trump’s Domestic War on Climate Action Has Propelled States into Battle
Originally published on Fusion’s Project Earth vertical (and reposted by Newsweek), this article highlights the fact that the Trump administration is repealing many Obama-era environmental regulations. However, states such as New York and California are pushing back by maintaining their own high standards of climate action plans.
Want to explore Trump’s views on climate change? This sample essay about his pre-election positions on environment-related topics is a good primer: Donald Trump’s Campaign and His Disregard Towards the Environment.
MLA 8 Citation
Harvey, Chelsea. “Trump’s Domestic War on Climate Action Has Propelled States into Battle.” Project Earth, Fusion, 7 Apr. 2017, projectearth.us/trumps- domestic-war-on-climate-action-has-propelled-sta-1796423123.
Harvey, C. (2017, April 7). Trump’s domestic war on climate action has propelled states into battle. Project Earth. Retrieved from http://projectearth.us/ trumps-domestic-war-on-climate-action-has-propelled-sta-1796423123
Global warming article #11: Tropical Lowland Frogs at Greater Risk From Climate Warming Than High-Elevation Species, Study Shows
This article focuses on how global warming affects one specific species of frogs.
The article (originally published in the Ecology and Evolution journal)explains that Peruvian frogs living at lower elevations are at greatest risk of climate change because “…the lowland creatures already live near the maximum temperatures they can tolerate.”
Not into frogs but want to discuss how global warming affects another animal? Get inspired by this sample essay: The Effects of Human Intervention on Climate Change and Disturbance of Animals.
MLA 8 Citation
University of Michigan. “Tropical Lowland Frogs at Greater Risk From Climate Warming Than High-Elevation Species, Study Shows.” ScienceDaily, 7 Apr. 2017, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170407103546.htm.
University of Michigan. (2017, April 7). Tropical lowland frogs at greater risk from climate warming than high-elevation species, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/ 2017/04/170407103546.htm
Global warming article #12: Americans Finally Realize That We Cause Climate Change
Published by The Huffington Post, this article highlights a study that reports 65% of Americans now believe that climate change is caused by human activity. Gallup pollsters believe the recent years of unseasonably warm weather have likely affected people’s opinions.
For some extra ideas on how this could fit into a larger essay, check out this sample essay: Humans’ Responsibility for the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming.
MLA 8 Citation
Visser, Nick. “Americans Finally Realize That We Cause Climate Change.” The Huffington Post, 18 Mar. 2016, www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/climate-change-caused-by-humans-poll_us_56ec27f9e4b09bf44a9d164c.
Visser, N. (2016, March 18). Americans finally realize that we cause climate change. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/climate-change-caused-by-humans-poll_us_56ec27f9e4b09bf44a9d164c
Writing the Essay
Of course, these global warming articles aren’t the only available sources you might use in your paper. This post simply provides a select few articles to give you an idea of what types of sources you might use.
Looking for more information about global warming? Take a look at this list of articles about global warming compiled by Kings College.
Need even more help locating credible sources on global warming? Read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper.
If you need assistance in putting it all together, check out these helpful articles about writing a research essay:
Need inspiration? Check out theseexample essays on global warming.
After you’ve finished writing, don’t forget to have our editors review your paper!
Psst... 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.
Global warming is a slow steadyrise in Earth's surface temperature. Temperatures today are 0.74 °C (1.33 °F) higher than 150 years ago. Many scientists say that in the next 100–200 years, temperatures might be up to 6 °C (11 °F) higher than they were before the effects of global warming were discovered.
Of the greenhouse gases, the basic cause seems to be a rise in atmosphericcarbon dioxideconcentration, as predicted by Svante Arrhenius a hundred years ago. When people usefossil fuels like coal and oil, this adds carbon dioxide to the air. When people cut down many trees (deforestation), this means less carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere by those plants.
As the Earth's surface temperature becomes hotter the sea level becomes higher. This is partly because water expands when it gets warmer. It is also partly because warm temperatures make glaciers melt. The sea level rise causes coastal areas to flood. Weather patterns, including where and how much rain or snow there is, will change. Deserts will probably increase in size. Colder areas will warm up faster than warm areas. Strong storms may become more likely and farming may not make as much food. These effects will not be the same everywhere. The changes from one area to another are not well known.
People in government and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have talked about global warming. They do not agree on what to do about it. Some things that could reduce warming are to burn less fossil fuels, adapt to any temperature changes, or try to change the Earth to reduce warming. The Kyoto Protocol tries to reduce pollution from the burning of fossil fuels. Most governments have agreed to it. Some people in government think nothing should change. Holes in the Ozone layer of our atmosphere can contribute to global warming. Ultraviolet (UV) rays get into our atmosphere, causing it to heat up. Cows flattulance also contributes to it. This releases methane which helps in global warming.
Temperature changes[change | change source]
See also: Temperature record of the past 1000 years
Climate change has happened many times over the history of the Earth, including the coming and going of ice ages. For more recent centuries, we have more details.
Since the 1800s, people have recorded the daily temperature. By about 1850, there were enough places measuring temperature so that scientists could know the global average temperature. From 1920 to 1940, the temperature got warmer. From 1940 to 1970, the temperature got slightly cooler. From 1970 to today, the average temperature for the world has increased by about 0.6 ± 0.2 °C (1.1 ± 0.4 °F). Starting in 1979, satellites started measuring the temperature of the Earth.
Before 1850, there were not enough temperature measurements for us to know how warm or cold it was. Climatologists use proxy measurements to try to figure out past temperatures before there were thermometers. This means measuring things that change when it gets colder or warmer. One way is to cut into a tree and measure how far apart the growth rings are. Trees that live a long time can give us an idea of how temperature and rain changed while it was alive.
For most of the past 2000 years the temperature didn't change much. There were some times where the temperatures were a little warmer or cooler. One of the most famous warm times was the Medieval Warm Period and one of the most famous cool times was the Little Ice Age. Other proxy measurements like the temperature measured in deep holes mostly agree with the tree rings. Tree rings and bore holes can only help scientists work out the temperature until about 1000 years ago. Ice cores are also used to find out the temperature back to about half a million years ago.
The greenhouse effect[change | change source]
Main article: Greenhouse effect
Coal-burning power plants, car exhausts, factory smokestacks, and other man-made waste gas vents give off about 23 billion tons of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere each year. The amount of CO2 in the air is about 31% more than it was around 1750. About three-quarters of the CO2 that people have put in the air during the past 20 years are due to burning fossil fuel like coal or oil. The rest mostly comes from changes in how land is used, like cutting down trees.
The Sun[change | change source]
Main article: Sun
The sun gets a little bit hotter and colder every 11 years. This is called the 11-year sunspot cycle. The change is so small that scientists can barely measure how it affects the temperature of the Earth. If the sun was causing the Earth to warm up, it would warm both the surface and high up in the air. But the air in the upper stratosphere is actually getting colder, so scientists don't think changes in the sun have much effect.
Dust and dirt[change | change source]
Dust and dirt in the air come from natural sources such as volcanos,erosion and meteoric dust. People also add to it. Some of this dirt falls out within a few hours. Some is aerosol, so small that it could stay in the air for years.
Some responses[change | change source]
Some people try to stop global warming, usually by burning less fossil fuel. Many people have tried to get countries to emit less greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997. It was meant to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to below their levels in 1990. However, carbon dioxide levels have continued to rise.
Energy conservation is used to burn less fossil fuel. People can also use energy sources that don't burn fuel, or can prevent the carbon dioxide from getting out.
People can also change how they live because of any changes that global warming will bring. For example, they can go to places where the weather is better, or build walls around cities to keep flood water out. Like the preventive measures, these things cost money, and rich people and rich countries will be able to change more easily than the poor. Geoengineering is also seen by some as one climate change mitigation response. For example, a process using nanotechnology has been found to remove carbon dioxide from the air to create ethanol.
Etymology[change | change source]
The term global warming was first used in its modern sense on 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broecker in the journal Science called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?". Broecker's choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that the climate was warming; previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climate modification," because while it was recognized humans could change the climate, no one was sure which direction it was going. The National Academy of Sciences first used global warming in a 1979 paper called the Charney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase, we find no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes will be negligible." The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changes as global warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO2 as climate change.
Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA climate scientist James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress. He said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and the observed warming." His testimony was widely reported and afterward global warming was commonly used by the press and in public discourse.
Effects of global warming on sea levels[change | change source]
Global warming means that Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets are melting and the oceans are expanding. Recent climate change would still cause a 6 meters (20 ft) sea-level rise even if greenhouse gas emissions were reduced in 2015 per a scientific paper in Science.
Low-lying areas such as Bangladesh, Florida, the Netherlands and other areas face massive flooding.
Cities affected by current sea level rise[change | change source]
Many cities are sea ports and under threat of flooding if the present sea level rises.
These and the other cities have either started trying to deal with rising sea level and related storm surge, or are discussing this, according to reliable sources.
- New York City
- Norfolk, Virginia, in Hampton Roads area of United States
- Crisfield, Maryland, United States
- Charleston, South Carolina
- Miami, Florida, has been listed as "the number-one most vulnerable city worldwide" in terms of potential damage to property from storm-related flooding and sea-level rise.
- Saint Petersburg
- Sydney, Australia
- Thatta and Badin, in Sindh, Pakistan
- Malé, Maldives
- Beijing, Mumbai, Buenos Aires, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Moscow, New Delhi, Rio de Janeiro
OECD 2007 report[change | change source]
From a 2007 OECD report;
- Miami, USA
- Guangzhou, P.R. of China
- New York-Newark, USA
- Kolkata, India
- Shanghai, P.R. of China
- Mumbai, India
- Tianjin, P.R. of China
- Tokyo, Japan
- Hong Kong, P.R. of China
- Bangkok, Thailand
- Ningbo, P.R. of China
- New Orleans, USA
- Osaka-Kobe, Japan
- Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- Rotterdam, The Netherlands
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
- Nagoya, Japan
- Qingdao, China
- Virginia Beach, USA
- Alexandria, Egypt
Another seven cities that are exposed to coastal flooding:
- Rangoon, Myanmar
- Hai Phòng, Vietnam
- Khulna, Bangladesh
- Lagos, Nigeria
- Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire
- Chittagong, Bangladesh
- Jakarta, Indonesia
Further reading[change | change source]
- Why you should sweat climate change March 1, 2013 USA Today
- Report Blames Climate Change for Extremes in Australia March 4, 2013 The New York Times
- It's Global Warming, Stupid November 1, 2012 en:BusinessWeek
- Extremely Bad Weather: Studies start linking climate change to current events November 17, 2012; Vol.182 #10 Science News
- Global Temperatures Highest in 4,000 Years March 7, 2013 The New York Times
- IPCC. 2007 Climate change 2007. the physical science basis. (summary for policy makers) IPCC.
- Jones C. Climate change: facts and impacts [online]. Available from: What effects are we seeing now and what is still to come?
- Miller C. and Edwards P.N. (eds) 2001. Changing the Atmosphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance, MIT Press.
- Ruddiman W.F. 2003. The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago, Climate Change61 (3): 261-293.
- Ruddiman W.F. 2005. Plows, Plagues and Petroleum: how humans took control of climate. Princeton University Press.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
Other websites[change | change source]
- The Climate Change Guide easy-to-understand information on Climate Change
- [en.citizendium.org/wiki/Global_warming Glass bal warming] -Citizendium
Public administrations and organizations[change | change source]
Other links[change | change source]
BBC articles[change | change source]
- ↑Campbell, Neil A. 2009. Biology concepts & connections; page 119. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- ↑Hansen, James (July 2012) (PDF). The New Climate Dice: Public Perception of Climate Change. New York, USA: Dr James E. Hansen, Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/%7Ejeh1/mailings/2012/20120803_DicePopSci.pdf.
- ↑IPCC (2007). "Summary for policymakers"(PDF). Climate change 2007: The physical science basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
- ↑Thompson (Climate Central), Andrea (May 19, 2016). "Atmospheric CO2 May Have Topped 400 PPM Permanently". InsideClimate News. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- ↑Justin Gillis (3 September 2016). "Flooding of Coast, Caused by Global Warming, Has Already Begun; Scientists' warnings that the rise of the sea would eventually imperil the United States' coastline are no longer theoretical". New York Times. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- ↑"Climate change 2001: the scientific basis". UNEP/GRID-Arendal (Grida.no). Retrieved 2010-11-03. en:UNEP/GRID-Arendal
- ↑"Climate change 2001: the scientific basis". Grida.no. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
- ↑"Sun-dimming Volcanoes Partly Explain Global Warming Hiatus". Scientific American. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑Volcanoes that act as air-conditioning for a warming world; Many small eruptions over the past decade or so have helped restrain climate change May 2014 issue Scientific American
- ↑Avery Thompson (October 17, 2016). "Scientists Accidentally Discover Efficient Process to Turn CO2 Into Ethanol; The process is cheap, efficient, and scalable, meaning it could soon be used to remove large amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- ↑"Nano-spike catalysts convert carbon dioxide directly into ethanol". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. October 12, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- ↑BEC CREW (19 October 2016). "Scientists just accidentally discovered a process that turns CO2 directly into ethanol". ScienceAlert. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- ↑John von Radowitz (July 13, 2015). "Rising oceans impact 'enormous'". Times of Malta. TimesOfMalta.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- ↑Dutton, A.; A. E. Carlson, A. J. Long, G. A. Milne, P. U. Clark, R. DeConto, B. P. Horton, S. Rahmstorf, M. E. Raymo (10 July 2015). "Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods". Science (journal)349 (6244). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa4019. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/349/6244/aaa4019. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- ↑McKie, Robin; editor, science (7 March 2009). "Scientists to issue stark warning over dramatic new sea level figures". Retrieved 23 January 2017 – via The Guardian.
- ↑President Trump, Military Split on Climate Change at YouTube
- ↑Floods in London. Royal Geographical Society
- ↑"Sea Level Rise - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation". New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑interactive map from Climate Central
- ↑"Mapping Sea Level Rise to Help Recovery after Hurricane Sandy". U.S. Global Change Research Program. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑World Bank, World Development Report 2010, 91.
- ↑en:Climate change in New York City
- ↑Noguchi, Yuki (2014-06-24). "As Sea Levels Rise, Norfolk Is Sinking And Planning". NPR. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
- ↑National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change May 2014 CNA Military Advisory Board
- ↑http://www.iapsc.org.uk/document/R_Crighton.pdf Investigation of Air Pollution Standing Conference
- ↑Montgomery, David (2013-10-24). "Crisfield, Md., beats back a rising Chesapeake Bay". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
- ↑Two cities, two very different responses to rising sea levels July 2, 2015 PBS NewsHour
- ↑Jeff Goodell (June 20, 2013). "Goodbye, Miami". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- ↑Climate Change Economics February 2015 National Geographic
- ↑"Coastal floods in Russia". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑"Most at risk: Study reveals Sydney's climate change 'hotspots'". 29 April 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑Cities, Connecting Delta. "Cities : Jakarta : Climate change adaptation :: Connecting Delta Cities". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑Khan, Sami (2012-01-25). "Effects of Climate Change on Thatta and Badin". Envirocivil.com. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
- ↑World Bank, World Development Report 2010, 91.