The 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago. ©Bettman/Corbis
The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 was held to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of America in 1492 and to showcase the fruits of man's material progress and the achievements of Western civilization.
The fair had a profound effect on architecture, sanitation, the arts, Chicago's self-image, and American industrial optimism. The exposition covered more than 600 acres (2.4 km2), featuring nearly 200 new (but purposely temporary) buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture, canals and lagoons, and people and cultures from around the world. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run.
The original Ferris wheel. Credit: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
The World's Columbian Exposition was the first world's fair with an area for amusements that was strictly separated from the exhibition halls. The Fair bore testimony to several firsts -- the Ferris Wheel made its first appearance, the United States Post Office produced its first picture postcards, phosphorescent lamps (the predecessor of fluoroscent lamps) were introduced, Cracker Jack and Quaker Oats were introduced for the first time, the first fully electrical kitchen including an automatic dishwasher was demonstrated, among others.
The Greatest Themes
The Exposition would not have been complete without a representation of the world's thought. Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions tells us that the idea of a series of congresses for the consideration of "the greatest themes in which mankind is interested, and so comprehensive as to include representatives from all parts of the earth originated with Charles Carroll Bonney in the summer of 1889". A committee was formed, and on October 30, 1890, the World's Congress Auxiliary of the Columbian Exposition was organized. Over the next two and half years elaborate plans were made involving an untold number of letters to and from all corners of the earth. The congresses, which finally met between May 15 and October 28, 1893 were twenty in all and embraced diverse things as woman's progress, the public press, medicine and surgery, temperance, commerce and finance, music, and -- "since faith in a Divine Power ... has been like the sun, a light-giving and fructifying potency in man's intellectual and moral development" -- religion. Of these congresses the Parliament of Religions was by far the most famed and widely heralded.
The Parliament of Religions
The Parliament was a unique phenomenon in the history of religions. Never before had representatives of the world's great religions been brought together in one place, where they might without fear tell of their respective beliefs to thousands of people. The proposed objectives were (Ref. World's Parliament of Religons, ed. John Henry Barrows, 1893)
1. To bring together in coference, for the first time in history, the leading representatives of the great Historic Religions of the world. 2. To show to men, in the most impressive way, what and how many important truths the various Religions hold and teach in common...4. To set forth, by those most competent to speak, what are deemed the most important distinctive truths held and taught by each Religion and by the various chief branches of Christendom...7. To inquire what light each Religion has afforded, or may afford, to the other Religions of the world...9. To discover from competent men what light light Religion has to throw on the great problems of the present age, especially the important questions conncected with Temperance, Labor, Education, Wealth and Poverty. 10. To bring the nations of the earth into a more friendly fellowship in the hope of securing permanent international peace."
September 11, 1893
The Art Institute of Chicago in 1893. This was the site of the Parliament of Religions.
The Parliament of Religions opened on the morning of September 11, 1893 at the newly constructed Art Institute of Chicago (before it had started housing the art exhibits for which it is now famous). The delegates for the Parliament gathered at the Hall of Columbus which could accommodate 3000 people with standing room for at least a thousand more.
The Hall of Columbus at the Art Institute. It has since been remodeled and is now Fullerton Hall
At ten o'clock, ten solemn strokes of the New Liberty Bell which was inscribed "A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another", proclaimed the opening of the Parliament -- each stroke of the bell representing one of the ten chief religions — Theism, Judaism, Mohammedanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Shintoism, Zoroastrianism, Catholicism, the Greek Church, and Protestantism.
Swami Vivekananda on the stage at the opening of the Parliament.
Four thousand had crowded onto the floor and into the gallery of the Hall of Columbus waiting for the delegates to appear. At ten, the group of delegates in a procession entered the back of the auditorium, the crowd making way for it. Then beneath the flags of many nations and amid wave upon wave of cheers it marched down the center aisle and ascended the platform. In the midst of this array sat Swami Vivekananda, conspicuous, according to all accounts, for his "orange turban and robe," or, as put by another delegate, for his "gorgeous red apparel, his bronze face surmounted with a turban of yellow."
Description of Swami Vivekananda's speech, from Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions.
The first day, September 11, was devoted to speeches of welcome from the officials and responses by the delegates. Through it all, Swami Vivekananda remained seated, meditative, and prayerful, letting his turn to speak go by time and again. It was not until the afternoon session, and after four other delegates had read their prepared papers, that he arose to address the congress.
Swami Vivekananda as a delegate at the Parliament.
The electric effect on the audience of the first words Swami Vivekananda spoke is well known. Neely's History comments that Mrs. S.K. Blodgett, who much later became Swamiji's hostess in Los Angeles, recalled The applause that had punctuated Swamiji's talk thundered at its close. The people had recognized their hero and had taken him to their hearts; thenceforth he was the star of the Parliament.
The full text of his speech at the opening of the Parliament can be read here.
Vivekananda at the Parliament of Religions
One description of Swami Vivekananda at the Parliament comes from the Chicago Advocate, a journal that was not entirely favorable to him. In addition to the plenary sessions at the Parliament, Vivekananda addressed the Scientifc Section several times. Unfortunately the talks were not taken down and hence are missing from the reports. Nevertheless, Dr. Barrows' book lists the dates:
- September 22, Friday morning: Conference on Orthodox Hinduism and the Vedanta Philosophy
- September 22, Friday afternoon: with Mr. Merwin-Marie Snell conducted a Conference on the Modern Religions of India
- September 23: Conference on the subject of the Rinzai Zen on Japanese Buddhism
- September 25: The Essence of the Hindu Religion
The Chicago Inter Ocean of September 23 contains the following report:
After the opening day, Swamiji again spoke on September 15. His talk Why We Disagree can be found in the Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Vol. 1. On September 19, he presented his now-famous "Paper on Hinduism". The Chicago Herald called his speech It was in this speech that he laid out his idea of a universal religion.
It will be a religion which will have no place for persecution or intolerance in its polity, which will recognize divinity in every man and woman, and whose whole scope, whose whole force, will be created in aididing humanity to realise its own true, divine nature.
On September 20, he spoke again at the end on Religion not the crying need of India On September 26, he gave a talk on Buddhism, the fulfilment of Hinduism According to Life, he spoke on at least three other occasions. On September 22, in Hall VII, he spoke at a special session organized by Mrs. Potter Palmer of the Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary, on Women in Oriental Religion. On September 23, he spoke before a session of the Universal Religious Unity Congress. On September 24, he spoke on "Love of God" at the Third Unitarian Church at the southeast corner of Monroe and Laflin.
Assimilation and not Destruction
On September 27, the final day of the Parliament, Swami Vivekananda gave his final address concuding it with the rousing call
... upon the banner of every religion will soon be written, in spite of resistance: ‘Help and not Fight,’ ‘Assimilation and not Destruction,’ ‘Harmony and Peace and not Dissension.’
If that call for was relevant then, it is all the more relevant today, and it is incumbent upon us to take the message of assimilation, harmony and peace to heart. In this year of Swami Vivekananda's 150th birth anniversary, the Vivekananda Vedanta Society of Chicago invites you to join us in a special program celebrating that call.
Swami Vivekananda in the West, New Discoveies Vol.1, by Marie Louise Burke
Swami Vivekananda in Chicago, New Findings, by Asim Chaudhuri
Neely's History of The Parliament of Religions
Life of Swami Vivekananda, by his Eastern and Western disciples.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed a students' convention on Monday to mark the 125th anniversary of Swami Vivekananda's Chicago address and BJP ideologue Deendayal Upadhyaya's centenary celebrations. The theme of the convention was 'Young India, New India'. To mark the historic occasion, Firstpost reproduces the full text of the speech given by Swami Vivekananda at the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago on 11 September 1893.
Dear sisters and brothers of America,
It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. l thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world; I thank you in the name of the mother of religions; and I thank you in the name of the millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.
File image of Swami Vivekananda. belurmath.org
My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honor of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration.I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true. I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth. I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to the southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny.
I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings:
As the different streams having there sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to thee.
The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world, of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita:
Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me.
Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization, and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honor of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.
Published Date: Sep 11, 2017 13:53 PM | Updated Date: Sep 11, 2017 13:55 PM
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